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Medicine Man

Prehistoric

Disease and Infection

Surgery and Anatomy

  • He performed Trephination
  • Was responsible for the tribes health
  • Used herbs to make remedies
  • Were nomads
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Aristotle 384-322BC

Ancient Greece - 1000BC-300BC

Disease and Infection

  • He suggested that the body was made up of four Humours
  • He collected Hippocrates ideas
  • He created a clear theory of how the body worked and how it could be treated
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Hippocrates 460-377BC

Ancient Greece

Disease and Infection

  • he was connected to the hippocratic oath (a collection of medical books.
  • They were written by his followers
  • He did not believe in magical cures
  • He believed in noting down symptoms
  • CLINICAL OBSERVATION:
  • Diagnosis
  • Prognosis
  • Observation
  • Treatment
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Galen 130-210AD

Ancient Rome

Surgery and Anatomy

Disease and Infection

  • He trained as a doctor at a Asclepion in Alexandria
  • He became a doctor for a gladiators Wounds)
  • He was a doctor to the emperors son (he had time to focus on studying medicine)
  • He believed in the four humours
  • He could not dissect so he used bones and animals which were often very different to human bodies
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Rhazes 860-923AD

Islam

Disease and Infection

  • Was an Arab doctor
  • He ran a Hospital in Bagdad (900BC)
  • He wrote about 200 medical books
  • He was famous for writing his 'Canon of Medicine' (an encyclopedia of medicine)
  • It included; Galen and Hippocrates beliefs combined with Islamic beliefs            
  • These were translations and notes on Greek medical books and books on his own discoveries
  • It showed how drugs could be prepared and how doctors could treat their patients
  • It was translated into latin and used to train doctors
  • He was the first to discover the difference between measles and smallpox
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Paracelsus 1493-1541AD

Renaissance

Disease and Infection

  • He was a swiss scientists
  • He strongly disagreed with Galen and Hippocrates ideas
  • He was highly religious
  • He believed that disease was caused by chemicals in the body so had to be treated by chemicals
  • He believed the illness could be treated by plants
  • He believed that God left 'Signature' (clues to how the world works)
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Jenner 1749-1823AD

Industrial Revolution

Disease and Infection

  • He found that milk maids in the village where he worked and lived had cowpox
  • He noticed that all the cowpox victims never got small pox
  • He tried an experiment and found a way of immunising through taking the puss from a cowpox
  • His idea was not supported by many doctors because they would lose money as the imunisations were cheaper that inoculations.
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Seacole 1805-1881AD

Industrial Revolution

Disease and Infection

  • Was born in Jamaica
  • She helped look after invalids and soldiers in her mothers boading house
  • She waned to go to the crimea as a nurse but was rejected because of her skin colour
  • She set up a medical store and hostel for soldiers
  • She also tended wounded soldiers on the battle fields
  • She was not welcomed back in England
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Nightingale 1820-1910AD

Industrial Revolution

Disease and Infection

  • Came from a wealthy family
  • They did not like her being a nurse (it took a lot of time and effort to persuade them)
  • She studied and became a nurse
  • Injured soldiers in the Crimean war were being treated in overcrowded with bad conditions
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Pasteur 1822-1895AD

Industrial Revolution

Disease and Infection

  • He wasd a French chemist
  • He was the first person to make a connection between germs and disease
  • Before germs there was spontaneous generation
  • A brewing industry asked him to look into why their wine was going off
  • He found out that germs/bacteria living in the air was what caused the mould in the wine
  • He then used a swan flask to create an air tight container in his experiment
  • He found that the air tight container meant the the wine stayed fresher.
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Koch 1843-1910AD

Industrial Revolution

Disease and Infection

  • Born near Hanover
  • He studied the disease of Anthrax and found it could spread from animals to humans
  • He found the Microbe that caused it by studying the blood of affected animals
  • He used new technology (microscope) to discover new microbes that were to small to see
  • He created a team to help him with his discoveries
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Blackwell 1821-1910AD

Industrial Revolution

Disease and Infection

  • Was born in Bristol
  • She emigrated to the USA
  • She was the first female doctor
  • After 29 refusals she was accepted into New York state
  • She set up a childrens clinic
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Garret-Anderson 1836-1917AD

Industrial Revolution

Disease and Infection

  • She wanted to study medicine but was refused from every university
  • Eventually she was accepted into an apothecary and took their exams and passed
  • She opened a new hospital for women
  • she was also elected the first female mayor
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Ehrlich 1854-1915AD

20th Century and warfare/Industrial Revolution

Disease and Infection

  • He was part of Koch's team of researchers
  • He was researching Syphillis
  • He started researching and found about antibodies and wonderes whether there was a chemical dye that killed off a specific microbe
  • He searched for a magic bullet with his research team and after 600 attempt his team still couldn't find it
  • When a new researcher joined his team he was asked to go through the attempts
  • he found that the 6th attempt had actually worked
  • The magic bullet was called 'Salvasan 606'
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Fleming 1881-1955AD

20th Century and warfare

Disease and Infection

  • He worked in a miltary hospital in Bolougne
  • Some of the antiseptics there did not prevent infection in deep wounds
  • He wanted to find a substance that killed germs more effectively
  • Whilst he was researching a seperate germ he noticed that the agar jars he'd been using and had been left to be washed had a mould growing in them
  • He saw that the mould had killed the germs in the agar jar
  • This was 'Penicillium mould'
  •  He recorded his discovery but could extract it from the mould because of money etc. and therefore could not further his research
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Florey and Chain 1898-1979AD

20th Century and warfare

Disease and Infection

  • Chain was a refugee from Germany who joined Florey's research team
  • They decided to find to find a way of turning Penicilium from mould to form by using the mould juice
  • They succeeded in creating small quantities of powder form
  • They tested it on eight mice by giving all eight a deadly dose of 'Streptococci'
  • Four of the mice were given Penicillin
  • The four that were injected with Penicillin survived whereas the other four died
  • Thye USA made grants to make Penicillin for their army 
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Versailius 1514-1564AD

Renaissance

Surgery and Anatomy

  • He was born in Brussels
  • His ansestors had all been medical figures
  • He studied anatomy at Luvain but didn't stay long as he had an arugment with a professor about the bleeding of patients
  • He taught anatomy in Padua
  • He did his own dissections and dreww anatomiacl drawings of what he saw
  • the drawings were alot more accurate than Galens
  • He published several books
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Pare 1510-1590AD

Renaissance

Surgery and Anatomy

  • He was born inFrance
  • He was born into a small village and trained as a 'barber' surgeon but then joined the military as a miltary surgeon
  • There they cauterized battle wounds through putting hot oil on tyhe wound
  • One time when he had alot of soldiers with wounds that needed cauterizing, he ran out of hot oil.
  • He remembered a herbal way of cauterizing from a book he had read that was a lot less painful for patients. 
  • His method proved succesful as many of the soldiers survived the wounds
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Harvey 1578-1657AD

Renaissance

Surgery and Anatomy

  • He studied at Padua
  • He wanted to see how the body works but he couldn't dissect live humans and dead bodies don't have a heart beat so he could use them.
  • He tried experimenting on warm blooded animals however their heartbeats were to fast for him to see the circulation of the blood.
  • He then tried experimenting on cold blooded animals like frogs and found that their blood flowed a lot slower and he was able to observe it.
  • he said there was a fixed volume of blood in the body
  • he used the water pumps to explain the pumping of the blood round the body.
  • he carried on bleeding patients so that he could still earn money through it.
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Simpson 1811-1870AD

Renaissance

Disease and Infection

  • He wanted to find something that relieved pain within child birth
  • He tested several chemicals until he accidently came across chloroform
  • He passed out just by breathing it in and found it to be effective and took effect quickly
  • Chloroform however was risky because it could be overdosed and the patient would never wake up or the surgeon could give to little and the patient would wake up half way through the surgery 
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Lister 1927-1912AD

20th Century

Surgery and Anatomy

  • He found that drugs such as Opium did not kill bacterai but only worked as painkillers
  • he found a chemical that killed bacteria but was too toxic to use internally
  • he found a way of making surgery aseptic
  • He found that soaking equipment in Carbolic acid and spraying the acid in the air killed bacteria and reduced infections
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Halstead 1852-1922AD

Industrial revolution

Surgery and Anatomy

  • He gave nurses gloves to protect their hands from from being irritated by the antiseptic spray
  • He found that the gloves didn't just protect the nurses but also the patients.
  • He created masks, gloves and gowns
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Mcindoe 1900-1060AD

20th Century

  • He set up a specialist hospital in England for airmen during the second world war
  • He was a plastic surgeon who specialised in war wounds
  • The airmen who were treated often had scars and burns from when their engines caught fire
  • He often reconstructed faces
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Barnard 1922-2001AD

20th Century

Surgery and Anatomy

  • He proved that a heart transplant was possible
  • He studied at Capetown university
  • He  performed a heart transplant on a woman involved in a car accident
  • The 59 year old woman died 18 days later but Barnard proved that it was possible
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Chadwick 1800-1890AD

Industrial Revolution

Public Health

  • Chadwick lead an investigation into the living conditions of the poor of the East end of London
  • He said in his report that the living conditions were terrible
  • He said that the government should pass legislation to improve sewage disposal and water supplies to reduse disease and people taking time off work
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Snow 1813-1858AD

Industrial Revolution

Public Health

  • He wanted to investigate the cause of Cholera outbreak in London
  • He found that the people who had cholera were drinking from the Thames
  • Others were drinking from springs so he removed the pump that was causing the Cholera
  • His ideas were not accepted by everyone
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Hill 1838-1912AD

Industrial Revolution

Public Health

  • She wanted to help the poor and found that the poor housing was leading to disease and infection
  • She bought some houses which then let out at a cheap price as long as the tenants paid their rent and looked after it
  • She made the houses better and cleaner
  • Her ideas spread
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Booth 1840-1916AD

Industrial Revolution

Public Health

  • He pointed out that a third of people living in London were not eaning enough
  • Nobody had pensions
  • He said that poverty was not caused by laziness but by sickness, low wages and old ages
  • Rowntree discovered the same things as him
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Beveridge 1879-1963AD

20th Century/Industrial Revolution

Public Health

  • He wrote a report saying that the government should look after all members of society (not just the poor)

He believed in the five giants:

  • want
  • disease
  • ignorance
  • squalor
  • idleness                           He believed that these needed to be destroyed
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Bevan 1897-1960AD

20th Century

Public Health

  • He founded the NHS
  • He believed that Health care should be available for everyone
  • Doctors feared that it would give the government to much freedem
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