India had 300mn inhabitants }
70,000 British officials were stationed in India.
70% of the population were Hindu.
20% were Muslims.
The British built 23,000 km of railway.
1/3 of India was run as princely states by the Maharajas.
ORDER OF VICEROYS
1857- INDIAN MUTINY (don't need to know for exam)
Indian sepoys revolted after discovering that the new Enfield Rifle contained both pork and beef fat tallow- upsetting both Muslims and Hindus.
British families were slaughtered.
British officials responded by torching villages and attacking unarmed Indians.
Restoring order cost £36mn. }In 1858, the GVMT OF INDIA ACT transferred the rights of the EIC to the British Crown.
1885- CONGRESS SET UP(dont need to know for exam.)
The Indian National Congress was established.
At first it was not a political party and pledged its loyalty to the crown.
Most representations were high-caste Hindus
1905- PARTITION OF BENGAL
Viceroy Curzon (since 1898) decided to divide the 80mn inhabitant province to improve administration.
Hindus objected to the creation of a Muslim-dominated province of East Bengal.
Riots and unrest broke out.
It led to Curzon’s resignation.
1906- MUSLIM LEAGUE
The Muslim League is founded on the basis that Congress does not as it claims represent all Indians.
Some Indians belonged to both Congress and the League.
The League is set up to protect Muslims’ rights and become the sole representative for Muslims.
The League also sends the SIMLA DEPUTATION to the new Viceroy (Minto) asking for the protection of Muslim interests, especially in elections.
1909- MORLEY MINTO REFORMS
Viceroy Minto (since 1905) and sec. of state Morley allowed more Indians to be involved in decision making e.g. on the Imperial Legislative Council.
THE NDIAN COUNCILS ACT guaranteed separate representation for Muslims and other minorities. }The reforms were criticised for establishing communalism, not giving real power to Indians and for a weak franchise.
}India gives its full support to Britain- many Sikhs believe in the pride and bravery of battle whilst politicians hoped for concessions from the British if they helped the war effort.
Bal Tilak and Gandhi declared their loyalty.
In 1915, Muslims objected to fighting fellow Muslims in Turkey.
£150mn and 1.25mn men contributed to the war.
64,500 Indian soldiers died.
The war led to fuel shortages, food riots and rising prices.
1916 lucknow pact
- muilism league and INC singed an guaratning Muslim reprsentation in a indian assembly.
- mulsim would have fixed % seat in parilaiment and extart seat where Muslims had a minority.
1916 home rule league
- congrese meber Annie Besant and BAl Tilak set up this legaue aksing for home rule
- they simmulaited eveyone throught newaper raliese
- afert one 60,00 meber joined afert one year
1917 Montagu Declaration
- sec of state Mntuage proimsed the "gradual delvopemtn of self goverining instustuon in indina.
- the problom of this was there was no timescale.
- it hint at the devlopmetn of a new act afert Montauge vistis Indian.
- the main reofm of the gvemrnet of indain act.
- a systmem of dyarchy dual goverment betwene the Raj and Indians.
- provinal counclis were mace in chagre of eduaction and healt whislt Brtian controled eveythink ells.
- congress did not like this
- the rowlatt acts extended wartime mussaese. trai l with out jurry and inprosoiment. into peactime .
- this lead to unresets in punjab and begal
1920-1922- 2ND SATYAGRAHA
Gandhi persuaded Congress to demand Swaraj.
Gandhi’s massive disobedience campaign began: public was encouraged to disobey tax payments, boycott British goods and elections e.g. only 1/3 electorate voted and 200 lawyers gave up their practice.
By 1922, 30,000 Congress members were in prison and the campaign had led to violence in ChauriChaura leading to 22 policemen deaths.
1919 Amristas Massacer.
Gandhi’s peaceful hartal in response to the Rowlatt Acts led to violence.
Marcia Sherwood was beaten near to death. Led to the CRAWLING ORDER and the Salaam.
General Dyer banned all public meetings but one went ahead on 13th April.
Dyer led troops into the Jallianwallah Bagh. 379 people were killed and 1200 wounded.
Gandhi called off his campaign due to the violent protest afterwards e.g. 500 students/teachers arrested.
The HUNTER REPORT reprimanded Dyer although many British in India and back home thanked him. E.g. Morning Post raised £23,000.
1920 reorganising congreses
- mebership increased from 100,000 to 2million
- 3 admisinter levle were setup "all indian committee" pronvincal level" and "local level"
- 100 extart proiveves and lola braches set up.
- in 1924 gandhi set up the all indian spiiners assocation.
the simion commsion
- 7 Britihs meber of the commision were sent out to indian assess the progeses of the 1919 goverment of indina act.
- congrese and the muslim leage resfused to cooperate with it however the minortires met the commson
- laer Jinah deiced to cooperat being a peroid of cooperation with the british.
- the simion repot reocmadne no chagne in the rulling of indian.
1928 the neru report.
- flollowing the Simion commission congrese demaded demionon stautes and adaotr a pociyl of wanting a united indian with strong feral govment with weak povinvese.
- the musslim luage saw it as a move a way form the lucknnow pact.
1929 irwin declartion
- Irwn who was the Viceroy delacred indian was toward the dommion stautes.
- he was plaaning round table confercnese in london to plan indian future.
1929 jinnahs 14 points
- Jinnah prosed a weak central govermetn and stoong provived and Muslims protection.
- congreeses rejeted his progmame.
1930 salt Satygraha(salt march)
- he walked for 24 day form his ashram
- anythink made buy the brithish was also boycoted.
- Indins reused to pay taxes.
- 60,000 congrese meber were arrsted.
1930-1st round table conference
- held in london but congrrese and the lueage refused to attened
- it had little authority or power/
1931-gandhi irwin pact
- a comproimise is reached
- gandhi suppsend his campaign.
- Irnwin refocie the inproactn leader Gandin is and rrelase 19,000 meber from prision.
- Gandhi arrged to attend the 2nd round table confercer.
1931 2nd round table confreses
- gandhi attend as the only ngrese meber
- he i greeted by crowds in the east end
- he also vist the lanchsire cotton mills
- his arroganc prevent progses ad no argment are made
1932 3rd round table confernce
- no one form congrese attend so no progeses is made.
- in brtian the national goverment has fromed a conseration govmnt run by labour.
- this mean no mber of the labor party dont go
- franchiae finace and role of prily staees were disscussed but no conclusion was reached.
1933 pakstain frist invented
“Land of the Pure”
1935 government of india act
- indian would be divied into provied each which had it own legistle assembly and privnal govemn
- each prove was still appoitned a goveorn who chould act to raitin law and oder in a emergises.
- Dyarchy was ablosied
- the viceroy had to follow adive of the extiuce committe of indians.
- the congrese caled it a haflway house/ they wated soyntger govemtne with wker proived and did not make speicle provsion for muilsim/
- the league thought the musslim did not have enought power and werw annoyed that congrese would not work with them.
1937 indian general ellections
- nehru led the campiage for congrse who 7/15 seat out of 1586.
- they toke power in states and Nehru took office and repalced Ganddhi as the leader of the INC
- ML won 5% of the total musilm vote and only 22% of the seat revser for muilsim
- congrese refused to work with them, saying they reptred all indian.
- the lauge grew in medbship and began to camign for a srpate musilm state
- Lintighlow deealred war German for indina commtingn 300millio indian to war.
- congrese was fursiou for haveing been coslated and regisned form 100s of psot in rivale govemrne
- Gandhi naivley wantted t negtoaice with Hllter peacefuly.
- Nehru said he would be perade for indian to fight if thwy granted Purnan Sawaraj
- Jianae called for Muilsi Indian day of delvivg in clearton at the ralsie form hinide *******
- Bose fromed the forward the fowrd block party.
1940 demadns for indepndenc
- congress asked for a national goverment to be set up but the Viceroy refused leading to the stat of antother cvill disobedince campaing
- 1700 congress leader were arrseted.
- also at htis point Cruchhiil beocm PM of Britian anit indiena indcpdnet
1940 lahrore resoutlion
- the leauge supported the ear effeot but in 1940 Jinnah began to push for a sepatre Mulism state
- at the 100,000 muilsim Jinah spole of paksitian
- JInnah also meet the vrcory and the arrgeed that the indian would join the war adsvoiry counclie.
- any futher constion would also need to be inporved by the muslim
- meber ship of the ML increaes to 2 million.
- congreses condemmeed the resoultion but looked weakr as it current presdent bose left for Japan to set up the INA.
- Nehurs attempts to deounce the idea were uneleess
1942 evetns of ww2
- external thearts form Japan who had taken thailland, sinagpore, indochian, indian chould of been next
- viceroy Linlithgow chould only suggest a scorhred earth poicly
1942 cripps misson
- the usa entred to war in decmber of 1941 and president Roosevelty began to prussure to accpct selt goverment for india.
- Sir staffored crippis was sent to indona and offereed domion stuates with hte option for provivien/prienclu state to opt out.
- all parites were invted to join a goverment of unit unint the war was over.
- congreses rejted the opt out option
- conngrese argeed to join the govemen if it truly gace indian conrole of snior minsister.
- to this Chruchhill refused.
1942 quit india campaign
- gandhi reponce was to demand imediate indpence or mass non violeten protest would make india ungoverbal.
- they started peacefull but soon turned violent.
- 1000 people died and the distubance had to put down using 30,000 troops.
- congrese leader icuding Gandhi and Nehru were arrsted unit 44-45
- army had remaied loyal the campaign had fallied.
- congress was delacred iilgeal and it funds were seized.
1942 event of quit indian campaing
- Ritos, attack on Europmean, damge to goverment office, police station, railways.
- RAF droped flares on corwds.
- when plane crahsed landned 2 crew meber were murdered.
- Benglsa insptector murder. 2 magistasrtiop burrned alive.
- In the united provien poilemen barried into station. 4000 angry villagers with spears saw, spade and elephtans.
1943-1945 effect of WW2
- the bengal famine occured due to poor harvest , distrbution faliuer and tenfold inflation.
- 1-3 million poople died over 3 year.
- Brtian ahd spent more than 1billion on India durrign the war.
- the 2.5miilion strong indian army was less loyal to the Brithish afert the war
- Brtian had war debt of 2730 million.
1945 simla confference
- the Vicerory wavell returred form London conivned for a new settletnt to be made.
- he based it on the crips mission with an exectuive Council to be made
- Labour was in power in Brtina. he was pro inpeneden
1946 cabinet mission
- attlee sent a misson to indian to creat united indian
- A muninty in the India army and navy empahised the need.
- Provicnal govemrne would be grouped acording to there relgoise majority but each one would be reresented in parliament.
- congrese and the League accpted.
- 6 congrese meber and 5 leauge meber and 3 othwer were invited to from an interime govermet.
- Gandhi objected that no MUlsim congrse meber would be in the govermetn,.
- Nehr reklesely said inidna would soon beocme Hindu-dominated and the idea of pakistain would disappear.
1946 muslim direct action day
- 16th augeuss nation wide demosrtina meant to be peacfule intreted local vilolent.
- 5000 died in Calcutta
- Gadie tried ti stop violence by fasting. (dont not work.)
- congreses and the league were applaed and joined goverment but could not work together.
- Replaced Wavell with Lord Mountbatten and announced that British would leave no later than 30 june 1948
- Mountateen was a well respted, liberal, intelligent, royal, who had fount in south east asia in ww2
- he met with all but got on better with the congreses.
- Ritos broke out in Punjab broke out.
- he frsit plan was called "plan Balkan"
- it was were prinecly sates and proivne could opt out of a united indian. this thus mean the congress objeetd to it.
1947 independecne granted
- in May 1947 Mountbatteen adopted partion and brought forward the date of indepdnce to 15th of august 1947
- The radclife commsion (hindu and muslim judge) set bourdaise for indian and pakistan over 6 weeks.
- brtishih assetst went ro indian 82.5% to India and Pakistan had 17.5%
- Muslims had to move to the north west or north east.
- 600,00 peoplle died in the process.
- within a year afert parttion india was republic.