Key Words - Culture & Identity

These are words that may be used in your first question on paper 1, which is a define question worth 4 marks on the new specification. To get full marks, you need to define the word and give an exapmle to further explain it.

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Expected patterns of behaviour that are based on the values of a culture

Example: Joining the back of a queue whilst waiting, which as the attached value of politeness and respect

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Beliefes and ideas that society sees as important, that are accepted by the majority of society

Example: To show repect and be polite toward your elders in society

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A comprehensive pattern of behaviour that is socially recognized, providing a means of identifying and placing an individual in a society.

Example: a teacher is expected to give younger generations an educatoin by delivering lectures, assigning homework, and preparing individuals for examinations.

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A society that shares norms and values, with shared activities and products

Example: Western culture, a shared activity is going to the cinema or resturants like Nandos, it is expected that you queue and have good manners.

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Popular Culture

Cultural products or activites that are enjoyed by the majority of the populatoin

Example: Going to the cinema, watching football games, going to festivals

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A culture within a culture - a smaller group of people with distinctive norms and values

Example: in the Goth subculture, it is the norm to wear dark clothing, and listen to a specific genre of music/ bands or artists such as Sisters of Mercy or Alien Sex Fiend

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High Culture

Cultural products and activites that are seen to have a high status in society

Example: Attending the ballet or going to the opera are all activites that higher classes partake in and the lower classes do not

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Cultural Diversity

Differences and variety found in society

Example: Ethnicity, religion, sexuality, the Noth South divide in the UK

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The presence of several distinct cultural or ethnic groups within a society: the UK is multicultural

Example: Multiple ethnicities/religions ect being represented in one area, such as the North East of England which has a large Jewish and Asian community within its White British community.

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Consumer Culture

Increased availability and emphasis on the consumption of goods and services, aquiring them is deemed 'normal'

Example: The need to have the latest model of Iphone or smartphone, or use the latest social media apps

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Global Culture

Cultures can't be seen as separate due to globalisation, the lines that speparate cultures has been blurred. Aspects of one culture are now enjoyed by multiple cultures world wide.

Example: Coca-cola and be found in remort parts of the world and is enjoyed by most modern societies.

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Cultural Hybrid

Crossing or merging of 2 or more cultures to create an overall society

Example: the UK has English, Irish, Welsh and Scottish cultural traits within it.

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The lifetime process by which an individual learns the norms and values of society. There are two stages of socialisatoin; Primary and Secondary.

Primary Socialisation: The first and most important stage of learning, occurs from birth until the age of 4/5 years old. Agents of socialisation here are the Family.

Secondary Socialisation: A continuation of the learning process from the age of 4/5 years until death. Agents of socialisation here are Peers, Media, Education, Religion, and Education.

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How we see ourselves and how others see us

Example: Identifying as gay, lesbian, transgendered or as belonging to a religion or subculture like Paganism and Punk

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Social division withing society based on social power (according to Max Webber). There are 2 types of status; Achieved and Ascribed.

Achieved Status: A position in a social system that is earned or chosen and reflects a person’s skills, abilities, and efforts.

Example: Being a professional athlete is an achieved status.

Ascribed Status: A postiion that is beyond an individual's control. It is not earned, it is something people are either born with or had no control over.

Example: Being born into aristocracy or into a political family.

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Social Class

A social class is a group of people of similar status, commonly sharing comparable levels of power and wealth. This is a form of social stratification.

Example: lower class, middle class, upper class.

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The different ways in which females may express themselves through their behaviour.

Example: In the traditional subordinate view, women are nurturing and caring, vulnerable and open with their emotions.

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The different ways in which males may express themselves through their behaviour.

Examples: In the tradtional hegemonic view, men are the breadwinners, agressive and can't show weakness through emotion or otherwise.

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Formal Control

Written rules of behaviour that apply equally to everyone. This includes not only laws but codes of conduct within institutions such as colleges.

Example: It is the law that you cannot steal, and their are consequences for those who break the rule.

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Informal Control

Rules of behaviour that are not written, but rather excersised by peers, the family and the media.

Example: The media dictates that we look and behave a certain way that is acceptable and pleasing to society, like being thin and fit.

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The status of belonging to a particular nation or group of nations. usually associated with ethnicity.

Example: White British nationality, or Ethiopian nationality.

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Context, socail status and other factors can shape a persons culture and belifes.

Example: People become racist due to outlying factors such as a negative story or experiance with a different ethnicity, we are not born this way. It is a view that develops due to s persons circumstances.

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