Key Studies - Education

  • Created by: Bethy123
  • Created on: 23-05-16 14:55

Role and Purpose: New Right

Chubb and Moe:

  • education vouchers to be exchanged and spent where the parent wishes
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Role and Purpose: Functionalist

Durkheim -

  • creating social solidarity
  • teaching specialist skills

Parsons -

  • meritocracy
  • bridge between family and wider society
  • universalistic standards

Davis and Moore -

  • role allocation
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Role and Purpose: Marxist

Althusser -

  • education is an ideological state apparatus
  • reproduces inequalities by transmitting from generation to generation
  • legitimates inequalities through ruling class ideology

Bowles and Gintis -

  • correspondance principle
  • hidden curriculum
  • myth of meritocracy

Willis -

  • counter school sub culture
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Social Class Differences in Achievement:


Rist - teacher labelled and grouped children as fast learners (called tigers) who were mainly m/c; they were treated differently to those labelled "clowns" who were mainly w/c.

Rosenthal - tested pupils and told teachers they had identified "spurters." They returned and tested pupils a year later, they found half had spurted and they concluded this was due to labelling and different treatement i.e. self-fulfilling prophecy.

Lacey - found pupils placed in low streams lost self esteem and many formed anti-school cultures to gain status among peers.

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Social Class Differences in Achievement:


Bernstein - w/c use restricted code, m/c use elaborated code, gives them an advantage at school using complex sentences

Bourdieu - m/c children have cultural capital

Gerwitz - culturela and economic capital give children m/c children more choice due to marketization

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Gender and Educational Achievement:


Sharpe - interviewed girls in 70s and 90s, found low aspirations in 70s with marriage and children prioritised, however in the 90s careers were a high priority to support themselves

Mac an Ghaill - a crisis of masculinity - traditional male roles are under threat and w/c boys perception of this may infleunce their motivation and ambition

Francis - boys have unrealistic career ambitions that are less likely to require academic success i.e. footballer

Hannon - girls spend leisure time differently, often reading or improving themselves rather than boys who play sports

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Gender and Educational Achievement:


Epstein - laddish subcultures form because w/c boys who study are labelled as "sissies" or "gay and they assocaite masculinity with being tough and manual work

Gorard - the introduction of coursework in 1988 favoured girls over boys

Byrne - teachers encourage boys to be tough and girls to be helpful and quiet, this early socialisation shapes boys and girls interests and gender domains

Weiner - teachers cahllenge stereotypes and gender stereotypes have been removed from text books

Boaler - equal opportunity policies are key to girls' improvements, like GIST (girls into science and technology)

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