-Careful observation before making a diagnosis.
-Used Observation and Reason (Looking and Thinking).
-Thought disease occurred when the humours fell out of balance.
-Hippocratic Oath: Doctors should care for patients to best of their ability.
-Ideas were a mixture of common sense and inaccurate facts.
-Believed good diet and exercise helped.
-Greek Physician, theories used in medicine for 1,500 years.
-Improved study of anatomy by careful dissection and observation.
-Skilled surgeon, capable of operations others couldnt perform.
-Followed Hippocrates' theory of 4H, introduced further idea of opposites.
-Lead to developments in the way that people were treated.
-Thought dissection was important. Experiments lead to improvements in knowledge & understanding about the structure of the body and how it worked.
-Proved the brain controlled speech and not the heart.
-Heavily took notes and studied the body in detail.
-Studied circulatory system,discovered how the heart would pump blood around the body.
-Discovered surgical clamps for the veins, knew nothing about blood groups.
-1628 published theories in An Anatomical Study of the Motion of the Heart and of the Blood in Animals. Explained how blood circulated around the body.
-First to suggest humans & other mammals reproduced via the fertilisation of an egg by sperm.
-Studied anatomy, secretly robbed bodies from graves to study their anatomy.
-Corrected over 200 of Galen's mistakes.
-1543 published a book about anatomy, 'The Fabric of the Human Body'
-Wrote pamphlet on bloodletting, it was supported by his knowledge of the blood system.
-Showed how anatomical disection could be used to test theory, also underlined the importance of understanding the structure of the body in medicine.
-Felt that God was calling her to do some work, wasn't sure what it should be.
-1851 went to Germany for 3 months of nursing training.
-Allowed her to become superintendend of a hospital for gentlewomen in Harley Street in 1853.
-1860 established the Nightingale Training School for nurses at St Thomas' Hospital in London.
-Theories published in 'Notes on Nursing' 1860, hugely influential and her concerns for sanitation established practices which are still in existence.
-English doctor, founder of smallpox vaccination.
-1796 James Phipps. Inserted pus from cowpox pustule into incision on his arm.Testing his theory that milkmaids who suffered from cowpox never contracted smallpox.
-Told Royal Society 1797, told his ideas were too radical and needed more proof.
-Results finally published after he experimented on several other children, including his son.
-His work progressed the understanding of disease. made important step in understanding.
-Enabled us to stop people from getting disease.
-French chemist and biologist who proved the germ theory of disease & invented pasteurisation.
-Able to demonstrate that bacteria were accountable for souring wine and beer, and that bacteria could be removed by boiling and then cooling the liquid - pasteurisation.
-Theory proved that germs attack the body from the outside.
-Extended theory to explain the causes of many diseases and their prevention by vaccination - e.g Anthrax and Tuberculosis.
-Worked on anthrax and tuberculosis and further developed the work of Pasteur.
-Found out anthrax microbe produced spores that lived for a long time after an animal had died.
-Proved spores could then develop into the anthrax germ and could infect other animals.
-1878, identified the germ that caused blood poisoning and septicaema.
-Knew infected blood contained septaecemia germ, couldn't see them under microscope.
-Developed research techniques that others could use throughout the world.
-First female doctor in the United States and first woman to graduate from medical school.
-Trained women to be nurses and sent them to the Union Army.
-Established a Women's Medical College at the Infirmary to train women, physicians and doctors.
-Not a huge impact but she opened doors for opportunity for many female doctors.
Elizabeth Garett Anderson
-Physician and polotical campaigner. First Englishwoman to qualify as a doctor.
-Enrolled as a nursing student at Middlesex Hospital, attended male classes but was barred after complaints from other students.
-1865, passed the Society of Apothecaries exams and gained a certificate, enabled her to become a doctor.
-1866 established a dispensary for women in London.
-In 1870 she was made a visiting physician to the East London Hospital.
-1872, founded the New Hospital for Women in London.
-1876, act passed allowing women to enter the medical professions.
-Member of suffragette movement.
-Associated with public health advances during Victorian period.
-Used position in the Poor Law Commission to induce government to invenst in public health schemes.
-Britain's premier pioneer in publich health reform.
-Sanitary Report of 1834, established connections between overcrowding and disease led to creation of the Public Health Act of 1848.
-Report contributed to 1834 Poor Law Amendment Act, medical officers were appointed to workhouses, providing basic medical care for the poor.
-1875 second Public Health Act, calling for a complete overhaul of London's water and sewer systems was passed.
-One of the most important public health activists of the 1800's.
-Used information about deaths and marriages to identify, FOR THE GOVERNMENT where death rates were highest and what people died of.
-Helpful as it showed links between high death rate and unhealthy living conditions.
-Shamed some towns into improving public health.
-British physician, identified the source of a cholera outbrake in 1854.
-Everyone thought chloera was airborne. Snow didn't accept this.
-Published his ideas in an essay 'on the Mode of Communication of Chloera' in 1849.
-Able to prove his theory in August 1854, Cholera outbreak in Soho.
-Water pump in Broad Street was the source of the disease.
-Had pump removed, cases of Cholers immediately began to reduce.
-Snow's 'Germ Theory' wasnt widely accepted until the 1860's.
-Chief engineer to London's metropolitan board of works in mid 19th century.
-London was suffering from recurring epidemics of Cholera.
-Hot summer of 1858 created the 'Great Stink of London'.
-Lead to laws enabling the board to begin work on sewers and streer improvements.
-1866 most of London was connected to a stable sewer network devised by Bazalgette.
-Discovered that if certain dyes could stain bacteria, maybe certain chemicals could kill them.
-Set up private lab and a team of scientists.
-By 1914 they had discovered several 'Magic Bullets', compounds that had a specific attraction to disease-causing microorganisms in the body, and that would target them, and kill them.
-Methylene Blue (for Malaria), Trypan Red (for Sleeping Sickness), and Salvarsan (for Syphilis).
-Salvarsan was more effective than the other two.
-Bacteriologist, best known for his discovery of Penicillin.
-In 1928, while studying influenza, he noticed mould had developed on a set of culture dishes being used to grow Staphylococci.
-Florey and Chain developed Penicillin further so that it could be produced as a drug.
-By 1940's it was being mass produced by the American drugs industry.
Florey and Chain
-Scientists that stumbled across Flemming's research papers, intrigued by his findings.
-They were sure that if Flemming was right, this discovery could save alot of lives, prevent pain and make it much easier to fight infectious diseases and prevent other infections.
-They developed a system of growing penicillin, which tested it's effectiveness on mice.
-Tests were successful, became convinced it would cure many.
-They were unable to expand on development of the drug, mass production wasnt financially possible at the time.
-Florey and Chain had discovered a drug that combated the spread of infection, and allowed a chance for recovery.
-Became fascinated by rays that were recently discovered by Wilhelm Roentgen and Henri Becquerel.
-Roentgen discovered X-Rays and Becquerel found rays given off by Uranium.
-Marie began to do experiments.
-One day she examined a material called Pitchblende.
-Expected there to be a few rays from the uranium in it, but she found alot of rays.
-Discovered Radium and Polonium.
-Her research was crucial in the development of X-Rays.
-Curie helped equip ambulences with X-Ray equipment to the frontlines in WW1.
Charles Booth and Seebhom Rowntree
-Beginning of 20th Century, no old age pensions, unemployment benefits, or family allowances.
-If the main wage earner died, whole family could be plunged into poverty.
-Gov expected to - maintain law and order, and protect country from invasion.
-Both wealthy businessmen, supported major investigations into the causes of poverty in Britain.
-Findings agreed on two key points:
:Up to 30% of population in cites were living in or below poverty levels
:Conditions were so bad people couldn't pull themselves out of poverty alone.
-People began to recognize that the gov. had a role to play. Political and social reforms took place.
Sir William Beveridge
-British economist and social reformer, closely related with the development of the welfare state.
-1942, declared there were five 'giants on the road to reconstruction'.
-These were - poverty, disease, ignorance, squalor, and idleness.
-Wanted to defeat these giants.
-Proposed setting up a welfare state with social security, a nhs, free education & full employment.
-In the years after the war, Labour government tried to make this come true.
Aneurin 'Nye' Bevan
-Chief architect of the National Health Service.
-Became trades union activist and studied in London.
-Was convinced by the ideas of socialism.
-During 1926 General Stike, he emerged as one of the leaders of the South Wales miners.
-1929, elected as the Labour Member of Parliament for Ebbw Vale.
-After Labour victory in 1945 general election, appointed minister of health, he was responsible for establishing the NHS.
-5th July 1948, gov took over responsibility for all medical services, free diagnosis and treatment for all.
-1959 elected deputy leader of the Labour Party.
Watson and Crick
-Worked together on studying the structure of DNA.
-At that time Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin were using X-Ray diffraction to study DNA.
-Watson and Crick used their findings in their own research.
-April 1953, they published their discovery.
-Explained how DNA replicates and how inherited information is coded on it.
-Their discovery opened many doors for other biologists.