Key ideas, theories and concepts of Change

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Blending

  • Combination of two words to make a new one. Usually using only parts of the two words.

Combine: 

Lunch and Breakfast

Brunch 

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Compounding

Two words combined to make a new one. In this case all of the word is used

Combine:

Ice and Cream.

Ice Cream

Usually the two words start as separate words "Ice Cream", then they become hyphenated "ice-cream" until eventually they become a single word "icecream".

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Clipping

Reducing a word by removing a part of it. 

For example:

Telephone becomes

Phone

Parambulator becomes

Pram

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Initialism / Acronymy

Initialism:

Can be seen as an extreme form of clipping. Each letter of the Initialism is pronounced as its own word.

HIV

Acronymy:

The same as Initialism, but all the letters are pronounced as a single word

AIDS

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Affixation

Affixation involves adding prefixes and suffixes (or both) to already existing words. 

Adding a prefix often REVERSES the meaning such as:

the meaning of "cool" is reversed to "uncool"

Adding a suffix more often that not changes the WORD CLASS of the word, such as:

turning the NOUN: "mess" into the ADJECTIVE: "messy"

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Backformation

Words of this class arise from a misunderstanding. They are nouns that are assumes to have been Affixated, so the prefix or suffix was removed which forms a new word. 

For example:

The infinitive "to process" is derived from the word "process"

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Conversion

Occurs when a word is used in a different class than it originally derives from. This is not affixation.

For example:

"to text" became a verb from the noun "a text"

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Eponymy

These are proper nouns that became something else, usually a noun used to name something invented by the person that invented it, or generic items known by a brand name.

For example:

Hoover is now used normally for vacuum cleaners, even for other makes

Jeans are used for any kind of trousters made of the same material

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Specialisation (Narrowing)

The word begines refering to something really broadm such as the word gay meaning carefree, light and happy, but has narrowed to mean a homosexual man.

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Generalisation (Broadening)

The opposite of Specialisation. The word starts off very specific, then the meaning broadens to mean other things as well.

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Amelioration / Pejoration

Amelioration (Semantic Degradation):

This occurs when a word's meaning and asosciations become more positive.

Pejoration (Semantic Strengthening):

Opposite of Ameliorationg where the word's meanings and asosciations become more negative.

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