Key events 1918-1929


The Sartacist Revolt

Causes: The spartacists didn't agree with the new govenment and wanted germany to be communist. Many soldiers were angry that the war was over and there were famines and extreme poverty in germany.

Event: Led by Rosa Luxemburg, on the 6th January 1919 100 000 communits demonstated in Berlin, taking over key buildings and rioting in the streets. Ebert turned to the freikorps who numbered about 250 000 to crush the uprising. Several thousand communist supporters were arrested or killed and both leaders were shot.

Consequences: The spartacists failed and thousands were murdered. The new government became afraid of the left wing extremists and left Berlin to go to Weimar.

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The Kapp Putch

Causes: People were angry about the treaty of Versailes and the reduction in the army from the treaty of verailles.

Events: In 1920 Dr Wolfgang Kapp led 5000 right-wing supporters through Berlin to overthrow the Weimar government and bring back the Kaiser. They took over key buildings and the government fled to Dredson. Some freikorps were in the revolt and many others supported their veiws, therfore the governmnet encouraged people to go on strike and so gas, electricity, water and transport stopped in Berlin. Kapp eventually gave up and died in prison.

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The Munich Putch


  • Resentment of the Weimar goverment.
  • Growing number of NSDAP members,about 55000, mainly from Munich. Hitler saw this as his opportunity to go national.
  • Hitler was influenced by the fascists in Italy who marched through Rome, forcing their government to accept them as a new leader.
  • HItler wanted to exploit the discontent of the german people from hyperinflation.
  • He wanted to act before Stresserman got on top of the economic crisis.
  • Stresserman's goverment was starting to crack down on extremist groups.
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The Munich Putch (continued)

Events: On the 8th Novemeber 1923, 600 SA members burst into a beer hall in Munich where there were 3000 officials and Hitler annouced he was taking over the goverment in Bavaria. The three main speakers, Karl, Lossow and Seisser initially agreed to support the upsiring but changed their mind the next morning and Erich von Lundendorff (one of Hitler's supporters) released them. At 5am Hitler launched his attack and set 3000 supporters to take over key builing,s however the state police opened fire and Hitler dislocated his arm.

Consequences: 14 of HItlers supporters were arrested and Hitler and three others were put on trial, found guilty of treason and sentenced to 5 years in prison and the NSDAP was banned (lited in 1925). However, this was the minimum punishment for treason and Hitler only served 9 months. it gave Hitler a chance to wrire Mein Kampf, a book about his political views, beliefs and amitions,  and made him realise that he needed to gain ontrol through the democratc system.

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France occupation of the Ruhr

Causes: Germany was forced to pay heavy reperations, even though they were in a state of bankruptcy. France needed money to pay for war debts from America and they refused to be lenient wth Germany. By 1923 they could no longer pay their reperations

Events: In retaliation, the French rent troops into the industrial region of the Ruhr ad confiscated their raw materials, manufactered goods and industrial machinary. The German government called on passive resistance as they didn't have enough troops (10000). The French arrested some of  the stiking workers and called in their own, this increased Germany's debt, unemployment and shortage of goods as 80% of Germany's coal and iron factories were based there.

Consequences: The shortage of goods meant prices went up and so the govermnet decided to print more money to combat this and to pay their striking workers. In 1919 a loaf of bread cost 1 mark, by 1922 it cost 200 marks and by 1923 it cost 100 000 million marks. This is called hyperinflaion.  Everyone suffered as germany currency became worthless to other countries and therefore imprts dried up. however people with saving, esecially those living on them like pensioners, were hit the hardest as their money became worthless. Wages were paid twice a day as the mark increased in price every hour.

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The Dawes plan.

Causes: In september 1923 Gustav Stresssmann was appointed chancellor. He took immediate steps to stabalise the economy from the hyperniflation, for example in November 1923 he cancelled the old mark to the Rentenmark.

Events: In 1923 Charles G. Dawes, an American banker, agreed a plan to reduce american reperation payments to an affordale level, begining from 1 billion marks for the first year. It was also agreed that American banks would invest in German Industry. This began with a loan of 800 million marks and increased to £3000 million over the next few years. However, it was quite worrying that Germany relied compleatly on America for ts economy.

Consequences 1:Lled to the Young Plan in 1929 put forward by Owen Young which reduced the total reperations debt from £6.6 biliion to £2 billion. this alowed the government to to lower taxes and create a stonger industry. However it extended the payment which Adolf Hitler and many left-wings were angry about.

Conseuence 2: The great depression.

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The German Revolution

Causes: Kaiser Wilhelm's goverment had lost control of the country to strikers and rioters due to their anger from the amount of troops that had dies, the cost of Germany's debt, the blocked imports from the british navy and a sense of hoplessness.

Events: The army told Wilhelm to abdicate and he was advised to in order to prevent civil war. Rebellions and riots were braking out all over Germany so on 9th November 1918 he accepted his fate and fled to Holland.

Consequences: Friedrich Erbert became chancellor and the new, government agreed on an armistice. The Weimar goverment was set up and the the Treaty of Versailes signed.

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The 25 point programme

Causes: Hitler was appointed as Drexler's right-hand man to the democratic socialist party in 1920 and put in charge of propoganda and political ideas. 

Events: In February 1920 Hitler revealed his 25 point programme, emphasing the aim to abolish the Treaty of Versailles, expand germany's borders to give his people lebensraum and deprive the Jews of citizenship.   

Consequences: This, along with Hitler's energetic appeal, attracted many followers and membership grew rapidly to about 1100 in June 1920.

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The Great Depression

Caues: Due to the Dawes plan set about in 1924, Germany's prosperity relied compleatly on the USA, so when its stock market crashed in 1929 (the Wall Street crash) and the USA recalled their loans, Germanys economy went into crisis. the death of Stressemannn also led to unrest.

Events: Banks lost so much money that people were queing outside to get their money out, causing banks to run out of cash and some of Germanys biggest banks to collapse, making reparations more difficult to pay. Industrial output fell by 40%.  It caused massive unemployment, over 6 million were uneployed by 1933. This led to taxes being raised and benfits cut and many became homeless. Boredom turned to violence and there was an increase in 24% arrests for theft in Berlin.

Consequences: The Nazis became more prominent as people wanted a change and they promised to make Germany geat again. They recieced an extra million votes during this time.

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