KANTIAN ETHICS

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  • Created on: 12-12-15 15:44

KANTIAN ETHICS

UNORTHDOX CHRISTIAN - RATIONALISM 

1792 BANNED WRITE ABOUT RELIGION

NON-RELIGIOUS APPROACH 

WROTE ENLIGHTENMENT PERIOD

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AUTONOMY

WE ARE AUTONOMOUS - FREE CHOICE / REASON

ADOPTED SLOGAN 'DARE TO REASON'

READ JEAN-JACQUES THEORY OF SOCIAL CONTRACT

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MORALITY

ONLY REASON IS UNIVERSAL

SAME AS KNOWLEDGE - BASED ON A PRIORI CATEGORIES MIND - PURE REASON

FOUND BY USING REASON

HUMAN INTRINISC MORAL WORTH - END IN THEMSELVES

FEELINGS / EMOTIONS LEFT OUT OF ETHICS

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GOOD WILL

GOOD WILL INTRINISC 

CONSEQUENCE DOESNT MATTER

'IF COMBINED ALL EVILS STILL SHINE FORTH PRECIOUS JEWEL'

CONTRAST QUALITY E.G. COURAGE CAN BE GOOD OR BAD

SUICIDE BOMBERS ARE EXTRINSIC GOODS DEPEND ON CIRCUMSTANCE

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DUTY

MUST BE FOLLOWED

NOT ABOUT INCLINATIONS OR BEST CONSEQUENCES

MAY BE PLEASURABLE BUT CANT BE MOTIVE

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DECISION MAKING

DESIRE / INSTINCT - VICOUS CAT EAST INNOCENT MOUSE - DIDNT CALL ON REASON - ANIMALS NO FREE WILL

PURE PEASON - MORALITY COMES GOD, OUGHT TO DO SOMETHING WE SHOULD

HUMANS CAUGHT BETWEEN DESIRE INSTINCT REASON

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IMPERATIVES

HYPOTHETICAL 

DOING X ACHIEVE Y 

BAD - DOING SOMETHING MEAN TO AN END

CATEGORICAL

DOING X SAKE OF X

GOOD - DUTY BOUND TO DO 

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UNIVERSAL LAW

MUST BE CONSISTENTLY UNIVERSALISABLE 

E.G. PROMISE MAKING - ONE PERSON LIES EVERYONE CAN LIE

"SO ACT THAT THE MAXIM OF YOUR ACTION MAY BE WILLED AS A UNIVERSAL LAW FOR ALL HUMANITY"

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HUMANITY AS AN END INTHEMSELVES

PEPOLE ARE RATIONAL & AUTONOMOUS,

CANT ONLY USE AS MEANS GETTING SOMETHING ELSE

"NEVER TREAT PEOPLE SIMPLY AS A MEANS TO AN END BUT ALWAYS ALSO AS AN END IN THEMSELVES'

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AUTONOMY - KINGDOM OF ENDS

ALL RATIONAL AGENTS

LEGISLATOR & SUBJECT IN KINDGOM OF ENDS

INTRODUCES SOCIAL ASPECT ETHICS 

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SUMMUM BONUM

VIRTUE PERSON WHO FOLLOWS DUTY APPLYING CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE & HAPPINESS

DESRVE BE HAPPY 

NOT SOMETHING ACHIEVED LIFE

ACHIEVED AFTERLIFE

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3 POSTULATES

FREEDOM - FREE MAKE MORAL DECISIONS

IMMORALITY - MUST BE AFTERLIFE ACHIEVE SUNUM BONUM

GOD - NECESSARY GARUNTEE MORAL LAW & JUDGE FAILRY 

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KANT & ROSS

ROSS DISAGREE DUTY ABOSLOUTE 

CANT HONOUR BOTH DUTIES 

NOT OBLIGED TELL MURDER WHO LOOKING FOR - OBLIGATION LIE SAVE SOMEONE

ONLY WHEN CONSIDERED ALL PRIMA FACIE OBLIGATIONS DECIDE OBLIGED TO DO 

ROSS TELELOGICAL & RELATAVIST 

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STRENGTHS

EQUAL TREATMENT ERADICATES BIAS

CLEAR MORALITY ONE DUTY "GOOD FOR US IS GOOD FOR EVERYONE' - KANTS ADAPTATION GOLDEN RULE

MORALITY OF ACTION COMES FROM ACTOIN ITSELF NOT BASED MOTIVES, CONSEQUENCES RELIGIOS LAWS ETC.

UNIVESRLIASABLE - NO ROOM CULTURAL RELATIVISM 

HUMANS SEE HUMAN INTRINSIC WORTH - DECLERATION HUMAN RIGHTS 

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WEAKNESS

ABSTRACT - NOT EASY APPLICABLE ONLY SAYS WHAT TYPES ACTIONS GOOD

UTILITARIANS BELIEVE SHOULDNT IGNORE CONSEQUENCES 

FAVOUR HUMAN FREEDOM, YET IMPLIES MUST OBEY PRINCIPLES CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE

CONFLICTING DUTIES - ROSS HIGHER ARCHY 

PUTTING DUTY OVER FEELINGS IS COLD & INHUMANE

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AGAINST - HUME

"REASON IS & OUGHT ONLY TO BE THE SLAVE OF PASSIONS, AND CAN NEVER PRETEND TO ANY OTHER OFFICE THAN TO SERVE AND OBEY THEM"

EMOTIONS AND DESIRES COME FIRST

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AGAINST - HENRY ALLISON

"KANTS ACCOUND OF MORAL LIFE HAS STRUCK MANY CRITICS AS BOTH UNDULY HARSH & COMPATIBLE WITH OUR MORAL INTUITIONS" 

(http://1gn8ituwvgj1sry3b1iryx62.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/allen-wood-inner-interviews-section-200x200.jpg)

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ALASDAIR MACLNTYRE

"WITH SUFFICIENT INGENUITY ALMOST EVERY PRECEPT CAN BE CONSISTENTLY UNIVERSALISED"

(http://www.azquotes.com/public/pictures/authors/07/ae/07aebd7d1fc41d30d2e1fb183f021fc9/547589b75a9a3_alasdair_macintyre.jpg)

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AGAINST - R.WALKER

"CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE "REGRETABLE VAUGENESS" EVERYTIME A MAXIM IS UNIVERSALISED THE IMPERATIVE HAS NO CONTENT & RECOMMENDS NO SPECIFIC MAXIM. WE AS RATIONAL & FREE AGENTS MUST CONSTRUCT OUR OWN VARIOUS MAXIMS WHICH TO GUIDE OUR MORAL LIVES"

(http://www.kcl.ac.uk/ImportedImages/Schools/Artshums/philosophy/staffphotos/hopkins03.jpg)

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