Joints

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Bone Protection

The bones in a joint are protected from damage by friction in two ways:

  • The ends of each bone are covered by cartilage.
  • The space between them is filled with synovial fluid which acts as a lubricant. 

Muscles are attached to bones by tendons and made of white fibrous tissue. Muscles can only move a bone when they contract and so always work in antagonistic pairs.

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Types of Joints

  • BALL AND SOCKET - allows radial movement in any direction, e.g. shoulder
  • SADDLE - back and forth, up and down but no rotation, e.g. finger
  • PIVOT - allows rotation around an axis, e.g. neck
  • HINGE - extension and retraction of an appendage, e.g. knee
  • FIXED - restricted movement, e.g. pelvis
  • GLIDING - bones slide past each other, e.g. ankle
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