James and Foreign Policy

  • Created by: Kate H
  • Created on: 21-01-15 15:37

Factions at court

  • Howard family took most major offices in 1614
  • Pro-Spanish- encouraged 7 year gap in parliaments and encouraged king to use his prerogative
  • Pembroke faction- Earl of Southampton, George Abbot.
  •  Wanted actively Protestant foreign policy
  • Introduced Buckingham to James hoping to win him back
  • Buckingham ended up supporting Spanish Match, then helped to ruin it, then made ridiculous French marriage treaty
  • They wanted frequent Parliaments and a display of unity between king and country because they felt ignored
  • Encouraged those who were unhappy with foreign policy to seek allies in the commons- this challenged the king's right to be soley responsible for the direction of foreign policy
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Protestant Union/Catholic League

  • 1608-1609 rival alliances set up- Protestant under Frederick and Catholic under Maximilian of Bavaria
  • James had agreed to send several thousand troops to support German Protestants in Julich
  • Became leader of PU in 1611- only state capable of leading an anti-Habsburg alliance
  • 1613 Elizabeth marries Frederick of the Palatinate
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30YW 1618+

  • 1618 Bohemians renounce allegiance to Archduke Ferdinand and offered crown to Frederick who accepted. 
  • Ferdinand becomes HRE in August 1619.
  • James had advised that Frederick reject the offer as you shouldn't challenge crown's authority
  • November 1620 defeated by Maximillian of Bavaria at Battle of White Mountain
  • Spanish had intervened- hoping they would be helped to regain Dutch Provinces
  • This made cause of Palatinate even more popular and James allowed a volunteer force of 4000 to be sent to the Palatinate under the command of Horace Vere. Also appointed a council of War- reported in 1621 it would cost £200,000 to set it out and then £900,000 a year to maintain
  • James called a parliament in 1621, angry at Frederick- it had cut away Jame's position as a mediator. "for what hath religion to decrown a king?"
  • Commons pledged support for the king- 2 subsidies worth £150,000
  • James clung to hopes of negotiated settlements, calling on Spain to help but they had no influence over the Austrian Habsburgs
  • In the early stages of the war Bavaria exerted the greatest influence- directed the Catholic League. He insisted that the Palatinate was transferred to him as a reward.
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Addled Parliament of 1614

  • Spring.Intemperate language used by members made king fear for his life and the parliament was dissolved
  • Turned to the prospect of a rich Spanish dowry - proposed at £600,000
  • People thought that Gondamar was manipulating James at this point
  • John Digby sent to pursure match , although no rush at this point
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Execution of Walter Raleigh

  • 1618
  • Wanted to avoid giving offence to spanish, pursuing the match
  • Inevitably fought with Spanish when searching for gold
  • Unpopular, hero
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1621 Parliament

  • 1618-1621 fruitless negotiations with Spanish who were only holding up Match to stop hostile England linking up with the Dutch
  • Knew they might fail so needed a change of policy
  • Lack of decisive action by crown had been unpopular- George Abbot wanted to 'animate this business'
  • Commons wanted to help Frederick but not willing for James to squander it 
  • 1 million a year would be needed
  • Unusual, James invited Commons to discuss foreign policy, hoping hostility would force Spain into making concessions. 
  • Voted £140,000- asked for speedy vote but unsure what the money was for
  • Parliament wanted alliance with the Dutch and a sea war against Spain- 
  • James wanted to push Spain into concessions but if all else failed an expedition with Dutch and German princes.
  • Didn't want to break ties with Spain-hoped for marriage settlement; made the mistake of not fully informing Parliament about his intentions: wanted money to fight if match failed
  • Wanted anti-Habsburg not anti-Catholic alliance because wanted French and didn't mention religion
  • Parliament made a petiion  encouraging James to be more active in support, and wanted end to all negotiations with Spain
  • Pym said toleration would lead to equality, equality to superiorty and superiority to restoration
  • Drew up Protestation- statement of their liberties and James ripped it out of the Commons Journal
  • Dissolved parliament- start of the active dislike of the crown's foreign policy
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Trip to Madrid and Failure of Spanish Match

  • Charles and Buckingham went to Madrid to see Infanta but weren't allowed to
  • Spain held trump card- James would agree to anything to get them back
  • Spanish didn't understand the depth of the commitment to protestant cause- Gondamar said said James was 'very inclined towards the mass'- Spanish believed they could win James over with little opposition
  • Insisted on firm guarentees about toleration of Catholics , although Buck wouldn't let Charles agree to public worship which Charles always opposed
  • Their terms for restoration of the Palatinate, which James saw as a close link to marriage, were the restoration of Frederick's heir after his conversion to Catholicism, education at the Imperial Court and marriage to a Habsburg- impossible for James
  • Policy of mediation had failed and match could only be achieved on impossible terms
  • Treaty agreed in outline but Charles returned humilated thinking of war
  • Buckingham had been created a Duke- first non royal in a century- equally keen to go to war
  • James unable to withstand the combined pressure of them and the country
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Moves to War

  • Returned in October 1623 to a rejoicing crowd - 355 bonfires between Whitehall and Temple bar
  • Difficult for England to remain neutral - effectively helping Catholics until 1623
  • Only way to express anger to declare war, and this was very popular
  • First step was to call parliament to gather funds
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1624 Parliament

  • November 1624, James ill
  • Several members of privy council think war will be disatrous 
  • E.g Treasurer Cranfield- Buckingham got rid of him by impeachment. Dangerous- invited parl to choose king's ministers
  • Harmony appeared to reign at happiness of war 
  • Voted £300,000 (when 1 million needed) Charles attended debates, popular
  • Show of solidarity deceptive - commons want sea war which would be self-financing. Land war uncertain.
  • Appropriation clauses - would be used on sea war and help the Dutch. Went against the king's prerogative
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Role of Buckingham

  • Wanted an anti-Habsburg alliance- this would require wife of status for Charles
  • Also only in military alliance with France would James consider military action
  • Confusing messages to country, but worth it if paid off
  • Negotiations began for marriage treaty and Mansfeld expedition
  • Buckingham prepared to make concessions about religion- in 1624, agreed her children and servants could practice religion freely and have chapel open to public in London. Children to be educated as Catholics until 13 and Catholics granted toleration
  • Treaty did not mention military alliance
  • Cardinal Richilieu- no intentions of making war on Habsburgs- Buckingham gained nothing
  • Too heavily involved and had to accept a treaty which caused outrage in England 
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Mansfeld expedition

  • Jan 1625
  • Anglo-French
  • Last minute Louis refused to let them dock at Calais or send troops
  • Troops poorly equipped and Dutch countryside barren 
  • Many died of diease, had to stay on ships
  • £60,000 of subsidy wasted 
  • Breach of appropriation clauses
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