Determinism- someones behaviour is shaped by internal or external forces, their behaviour is set out for them, they have no choice.
Free Will- Individual have an active role in controlling their behaviour.
Nature- behaviour is determined by genes, born with it.
Nurture- behaviour is determined by their experiences.
Reductionism- breaks down complex theories into simple easy to understand theories.
Holism- opposite to reductionism.
Idiographic- Studies the individual
Nomothetic- Studies a group, so it can generalise.
Issues and Debates for Psychology
- Scientific approach- can be proved by lab experiments
- Determinist approach- cant control what goes on inside body
- Reductionist Approach- makes complex behaviours into simple ones such as stress is refered to as simply the hormone adreniline.
- Nature rather than nurture- mental illnesses have several causes rather than just biology (nature)
- Scientific Approach- can analyse the results as feelings and thoughts are operated in terms of stimulus and response behavours
- Successful Applications- applied in real world, most successfully mental disorders and education. eg aversion therapy in used to cure addictions.
- Nurture rather than nature- believes in shaping your behaviour rather than your born with it, ignores nature.
- Determinism- behaviour is influenced by the associations we make and world around us, our thoughts are not considered- no free will
- Takes into account nature and nurture- behaviour is determined by id ego and superego (nature) and our childhood experiences (nurture).
- Usefulness- highlights the fact that childhood is a critical period, freuds theories have influenced therapies used to treat mental disorders.
- Reductionist Approach- simplifies complex human bahaviour into 3 simple parts, id ego and superego
- Determinist Approach- infant behaviour is determined by innate forces, adult behaviour is determined through childhood experiences, no free will.
- Mediational Processes- explains how perception and memory effect the way we respond to world around us.
- Usefulness- used to treat disorders such as depression (CBT)
- Ignores nature and nurture- role of genes (nature) is ignored, as is social and culteral factors (nurture)
- Deterministic Approach- schema's are developed from young age, everything is childhood influences later life,also acquire stereotypes.