Issues of life and death

  • Created by: debz101
  • Created on: 18-09-18 13:30

The Origin of the World - Christianity

Christianity

The First Story:

  • God created the world for a purpose.
  • God created all human and animal life.
  • There's a purpose to existance.
  • Humans are expected to have a special relationship to God and the world.
  • On the seventh day, God rested.

The Second Story:

  • God created Adam.
  • He made Adam by the dust of the earth and His breath.
  • Adam was created before the animals.
  • God placed Adam to live in the Garden of Eden, which was paradise.
  • Afterwards, Eve was created to be Adam's partner.
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Same religion, different attitudes

  • Some believe that God created us by causing the 'big bang' to start the universe.
  • Others believe that there's evidence that life evolved millions of years ago.
  • Some feel that the creation story is historically true. Creationists feel that the origin of the universe was written in a sacred text.
  • Others believe the creation story could be interpreted  and could contain real meaning, which means it may not be historically true.
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The Origin of the World - Islam

There's no creation story in the Qur'an, but there's many teachings about the role Allah has as the creator and sustainer of life.

The main teaching of creation in Islam:

  • Allah was the one who made the world and everything in it.
  • Allah created the Heavens and Earth for six long periods.
  • Adam was made from clay and Allah breathed life into him.
  • A wife was created for Adam.
  • Humans were given a role as khalifahs to respect and look after the world.
  • When judgement day comes, they'll be judged for how they've looked after Allah's creation.
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Same religion, different attitudes

  • Many Muslims believe they are creationists.
  • They are also literalists as they believe every word from the Qur'an, like it was revealed by Allah.
  • Others may accept the theory of evolution, but may noy accept that human evolution is referenced by the creation of Adam.
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Environment Sustainability - Humanism

Humanists are meant to:

  • Exercise their moral duty to care for the world.
  • Care for the environment for a reason than just believe that there's a God.
  • Begin to create networks to protests on issues such as global justice, climate change and the environment, e.g. H4BW (Humanists for a Better World)
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Environment Sustainability - Christianity

Humans should: 

  • Live in partnership with God and His Creation.
  • Live in Stewardship (Taking care of God's creation) - Genesis 1:28
  • Maintain and protect the resources of the world and the environment
  • Thank God for how He's provided for you
  • Be responsible global citizens by carefully using the Earth's resources

Evangelical Christians:

  • They have Dominion (Control), rather than live in peace with the world and other creatures, as the Bible refers to humans as rulers over creation - Psalm 8:6
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Environment Sustainability - Islam

Muslims should:

  • Be khalifs (guardians) to the world , as it's their Allah-given responsibility. Humans should care and respect the world as Allah created it for them to live in and as He's the Lord of the worlds. - Qur'an 7:54
  • Use their skills for the fitrah(human nature)
  • Don't waste, respect the earth, and be kind to animals, as it's all part of Allah's creation
  • Some Muslims stress that we should care for the world as all humans will be judged by Allah on how we've done our duties, not just about sustainability and respect.
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Abortion - Humanist

Humanists attitudes:

  • It really on the situation, for example, if the mother's life is in danger.
  • Everyones wishes and rights are considered.
  • Humanists feel like abortion is of feel will and have campaigned to legalise abortion.
  • They believe that abortion is someone's own choice.
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Abortion - Christianity

Christians believe

  • Abortion is not ok as it says in the Ten Commandments, 'thou shalt not kill'.
  • As God is the creator of life, He's the one to choose to give or take life.
  • All life is sacred and precious.
  • Jesus taught us how important it is to have compassion.
  • Humans are created in the image of God.
  • In Jeremiah 1:5 , God knew us before we were even born, 'before I formed you in the womb.'

Roman Catholics/Orthodox Churches

  • Do not accept abortion under any circumstances.
  • They believe that as soon as the sperm is connected to the egg,  new life is created.
  • The Didache(The Twelve Apostles) stated that 'You shall not kill the embryo by abortion.'

Anglicans

  • In certain situations, abortion is ok. This is only if the mother's life is at risk.
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Abortion - Islam

  • It's haram (forbidden).
  • Allah is the one, who can only take life.
  • In the Qur'an 6.151, abortion is forbidden for money reasons.
  • Some Muslims allow abortion for up to 16 weeks for the baby's life, when they believe that the baby is being formed as a person.
  • The mother's right is the most important, until 120 days when the Ensoulment has taken place.
  • In order to save the baby's life, abortion is acceptable.
  • Allah takes in the person's intention (niyyah) into account on judgement.
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Euthanasia - Humanist

  • Advice is provided for those  thinking about euthanasia. 
  • There's access to expert information about end of life options and quality end of life care.
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Euthanasia - Christianity

  • Life is a gift from God.
  • Suffering and death is a doorway to the next life.
  • There's no clear teaching about euthanasia.
  • Guidance may be taught by prayer.
  • The doctor's say is important.
  • The patient's wishes are important.
  • The aim is to ease the suffering, e.g. hospices.
  • God gave life, so He can take it away.
  • The Ten Commandments say, 'Thou shalt not kill'.
  • Humans can't play God.

Roman Catholic

  • They respect all life.
  • Euthanasiais acceptable, but only under medical reasons.
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Euthanasia - Islam

  • Euthanasia is foribidden.
  • Allah chooses how long a person can live for.
  • It's not included in the reasons of killing someone.
  • The doctor's opinion is important.
  • The patient's wishes is important, e.g. the will.
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Death and Afterlife - Christianity

  • Humans have got a soul, which is a spiritual part of the human's being.
  • There is eternal life.
  • There's a Heaven, and it depends on a person's response to Jesus and people's need on Earth.
  • There's a Hell, which is a separation from God.
  • There's judegment, when God decides the soul's future.
  • There's resurrection from the dead, John 11:25-26  'I am the ressurection and the life. The one who believes in me will live, even though they die; and whoever lives by believing in me will never die.'
  • 1 Corinthians 15: 42-44, Paul teaches that the ones who believe will be resurrected from death and that their eternal life will be far more better than their physical life.

Catholics 

  • The souls of very good believers go straight to Heaven.
  • Other believers will go through purgatory, which is a place of cleasing between Heaven and Earth.
  • Prayers for those in purgatory can be said to shorten their stay there
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Death and Afterlife - Islam

  • There's an afterlife (akhirah) which is determined by a person's deeds.
  • There's a soul (ruh) which is released right after death.
  • There's a Heaven (janna) and a Hell (jahannam).
  • To enter Heaven is determined by the deeds of someone's life.
  • Hell is for the people whose good deeds are outweighted by their bad deeds.
  • Only God knows when judgement day will come.
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Funeral Rites - Humanism

Funeral Rites practices:

  • The funeral can be held in different places. Shows there's no belief in the place of worship.
  • Readings and songs are chosen to reflect on the deceased's life and interests. Shows that life is important and there's no suggestion of an afterlife.
  • There's usually no mention of God or readings of sacred texts. Shows us that humanists don't believe in God or sacred texts.
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Funeral Rites - Christianity

  • Prayers are said so that they can ask God for forgiveness. Shows the importance of having a relationship with God through asking for forgiveness.
  • Roman Catholics have the last rites where the priest gives Holy Communion. Shows the importance of sacrements and the belief of forgiveness through Christ.
  • Words like 'I am the resurrection and the Life' John 11.25 are read often. Shows that whoever believes in Jesus will be resurrected to spend eternity with God.
  • Candles are lit for the funeral. Shows the belief that Jesus is the passageway to Heaven.
  • Some Christians consider a burial. Shows that some Christians believe that on Judgement Day, bones of the dead will form into their bodies again.
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Funeral Rites - Islam

  • When someone is close to death words (kalimah or shahadah) is whispered in the ears like at birth. This shows that when you die your soul is returned to your creator.
  • A white shroud is wrapped around the body. This shows that everyone is equal before God in death.
  • The body is buried. This shows that the body should remain as a whole for Judgement Day.
  • There's no gravestone, this shows that we are all equal.
  • As the body gets lowered into the grave, words are said form the Qur'an 20.55 'We shall bring you forth once more.' This shows that God will resurrect the dead once again.
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