Issues and debates: Free will and determinism.

Free will & determinism.

Free will:

(def): Suggests that we all have a choice as to how we behave, because we can control our own behaviour. Focus is on personal responsibility- Humanist approach.

(criticism): opposite of the determinist approach; argues that it devalues human behaviour, because all events/behaviour are predetermined.

- (Strengths):

1. Studies the individual differences/importance of individuals.

2. Relevant to scoiety's personal responsibility- e.g. punished for breaking the law.

3. Relies on self-efficacy which is effective in treatments. * belief of ability to suceed in a situation- determine how you;think,feel,behave.

-(Limitations):

1. Subjective-argued by some to not exist.

2. Cannot be scientifcally tested.

3. Does not look at other factors that determine behaviour.

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Determinism:

Determinism:

- (def): proposes that all behaviour is determined, so it is predictable. Source of determinism can be outside of the control of the individual OR inside (genetic/unconscious motivation).

- Environmental determinim: (external); behaviour is caused by events outside of our control. Skinner agrued that "freewill is an illusion", behaviour is caused by e.g. parental influence/reinforcement.

-Biological determinism: (Internal); Biological systems e.g. nervous system determine our behaviour. E.G. High I.Q= IGF2R gene.

-Psychic determinism: (Internal); Freud- childhood & unconscious motivations govern our behaviour, so it is predictable.

Hard determinism: Free will is an illusion/ all behaviour is pre-determined via a prior cause.

Soft determinism: Can be both free & determined; moral choices are free, but nature aspects are determined.

Strengths:

1. Determinism is scientific= cause & effect relationship can be establishsed.

2. Evidence to support explanantions for behaviour.

Limitations:

1. Reductionist; over ismplifiesour behaviour.

2. Does not look at individual differences// unique human behvaioural patterns are overlooked.

3. Reduce responsibility of behaviour: E.G. criminals not being held accountable for their actions.

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Strengths and limitations of determinism

Strengths:

1. Determinism is scientific= cause & effect relationship can be establishsed.

2. Evidence to support explanantions for behaviour.

Limitations:

1. Reductionist; over simplifies ourbehaviour.

2. Does not look at individual differences// unique human behvaioural patterns are overlooked.

3. Reduce responsibility of behaviour: E.G. criminals not being held accountable for their actions.

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