Political ideological theories.  


'Semites' - descended by Shem (son of Noah), including most of people of the Middle East.

'Semitism' - specific hatred towards Jews. Earliest prejudice was reflected in hostility of Christians, due to the Jewish complicity in the murder of Jesus; refusing to acknowledge him as son of God.

Economic Anti-Semitism arose in Middle Ages onwards. Jewish known as money lenders and traders.

C19th saw birth of racial Anti-Semitism in Wagner and H.S Chamberlain seeing Jews as fundamentally evil and destructive = basis to German Nazism (Holocaust).

Seen in Facism and Chauvinistic Nationalism

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Belief or practice of government 'from above'. Power and Authority is exercised without consent

Authoritarianism differs from Authority (which rests on legitimacy, power arising 'from below')

Authoritarian thinkers often base their views in an established leader, that social order can only be maintained by unquestioning obedience.

Distinguished from Totalitarianism. Government 'from above' = monarchical absolutism, - traditional dictatorships (and military rule) concerned with repression of opposition & political liberty - rather than the more radical goal of obliterating the distinction <-> state and society.

Seen in Authoritarian Conservatism with monarchical rule

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The belief in collective human endeavour over individual self-striving. = human nature has a social core. Meaning, classes, races etc are meaningful political entities. 

Inconsistencies: Bakunin (and other anarchists) use collectivism as self governing models of life i.e. communes. Others see collectivism as opposite to individualism - collective interests prevail over individual beliefs.

Can be linked to the state. State responsibilities in maintaining community - nationalisation, mark advance of collectivism.

Seen in Socialism, especially in extreme Communism 

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Belief that the self or person is constituted through the community, as individuals are shaped by the communities they belong, thus owing them respect and consideration. 

At odds with Liberalism, communitarianism can take LEFT WING forms: 

- community demands unrestricted freedom and social equality (Anarchism)


- community is grounded in an acknowledgement of reciprocal rights and responsibilities (Social Democracy/Tory paternalism)


- community requires respect for authority and established values (The New Right)

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The practice of limited government brought about by the existance of a constitution. 

Can be said to exist when government institutions are constrianed by constitutional rules. It refers to a set of political values and aspirations;

- protecting liberties through establishment of internal and external checks on government power. 

- goals; establishing a codified constitution, a bill of rights, separation of powers, bicameralism, federalsim and decentralisation. 

Constitutionalism is thus a species of political liberalism

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Belief in the supreme importance of the individual over any social group/collective body.

Methodlogical individualism = suggests the individual is central to any political theory; all statements about society should be made in terms of the individuals who compose it.

Ethical individualsim = gives moral priority to individual rights/needs/interests.

Classical Liberals and the new right = egoistical individualism; placing emphasis on self-interestedness and self reliance.

Modern Liberals = developed individualism; prioritising human flourishment over the quest for interest satisfaction  

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Used by environmental theorists as a 'super ideology' encompassing capitalism and socialism, left and right wing thought.

Economically, characterised by large scale production, accumulation of capital and relentless growth. 

As a philosophy it is dedicated to materialism, utilitarian values, worship and faith in science and technology. Many ecologists see Industrialism as 'the problem'

Eco-socialists blame capitalism rather than industrialism 9ignoring issues of ownership, profit and the market)

Eco-feminists argue that industrialism has its origins in patriarchy.

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Theory or practice of politics based on transnational or global cooperation. Assuming that political identity is shaped by nationality.

Compatable with Nationalism in the sense that it calls for solidarity between or among pre-existing nations, rather than the removal or abandonment of national identities. 

Differs from Cosmopolitanism (it implies the displacement of national allegeinces by global allegiances) 

'Weak' forms of internationalism can be seen in feminism and radicalism, which hold that national ties are secondary to any other political bonds. 

'Strong' forms of internationalism have either drawn on universalist ideas of liberalist or socialist thought.

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Refers to theories of J.M Keynes (1883-1946) and policies influenced by his ideas.

Alternative to neoclassical economics and advances a critique of the 'economic anarchy' of laissez faire capitalism.

He argued growth and unemployment levels are determined by level of 'aggregate demand' and that the gov, can regulate demand through adjustments to fiscal policy to deliver employment. 

Associated with a narrow obsession with 'tax and spend' policies. Influenced by globalisation, neo-keynesianism has emerged that rejects 'top down' economic management. 

Seen in Liberal ecomonic management

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Refers to a range of theories that give priority to negative liberty over other values such as authority, tradition and equality.

Libertarians seek to maximize the realm of individual freedom and minimise the scope of public authority, seeing the state as the main threat.

Libertarian traditions:

- individual rights and laissez faire economic doctrines (Friedrich von Hayek) and socialists have also embraced libertarianism

distinguished from liberalism (liberalism refuses to give priority to liberty over order)

Differs from Anarchism in that libertarians generally recognise need for minimal state - sometimes known as 'minarchists'

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literally means to act in a fatherly fashion; as a political principle - refers to power/authority

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Ahh! i hate this unit!:P

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