Islamic Ethics - Conflict and Suffering

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  • Created by: Hannah
  • Created on: 13-06-13 09:46

The Purpose of Life

'To Allah we belong, and to Him is our return'. (Qur'an)

  • 'Islam' means 'submission, obedience and peace'
  • Muslims accept the will of Allah
  • 'Taqwa' = 'God-consciousness'
  • Life is meaningful --> determines where afterlife is spent
  • Jannah or Jahannam
  • All actions judged on Day of Judgement by Allah
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The Purpose of Justice

'I have forbidden injustice for myself and also forbidden it for you. So avoid being unjust to one another.' Hadith

Justice is a duty, injustice is against the will of Allah

  • Humans have responsibility to bring justice to Earth
  • Prophets and laws help people understand how to acheive justice
  • Following Shari'ah Law = fair + just societies 
  • Laws determine halal and haram
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Muslim views on Reconciliation and Peace

'Allah doth call to the Home of Peace' Qur'an     'Islam' means peace

  • Allah is the creator and entrusted mankind to live correctly on Earth
  • Guidance through Qur'an and Hadith
  • People have free will and choose to submit to the will of Allah
  • Submitting = Bringing desires, attitude and behaviour into harmony with Allah's will

'Salaam Alaykum' (greeting) meaning 'Peace be upon you'  <- constant reminder of ideal of peace 

(Peace = no oppression, injustice or tryanny + absence of intimidation, conflict and violence)

Peace is necessary for indiv.s to grow spiritually and morally

Reconciliation --> Ending dispute + forming friendly relations

  • Accept wrong doings + prepare to change
  • Those victimised prepared to forgive 
  • Reconciliation = peace and harmony

'Hate your enemy mildly, for one day he may become your friend.' Hadith

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Greater Jihad

Jihad means 'to strive or struggle' --> the idea of striving in the path of Allah

  • Greater Jihad = Muslims struggle to improve themselves + societies in which they live 
  • Resist temptation and selfish desires and do good for others --> foundations of Muslim's lives
  • 5 Pillars of Islam bring Muslims and Allah closer
  • Shahadah + Salah remind them to put God's will first
  • Zakah reminds them that what they have is because Allah wills it + they must care for others
  • In Sawm, they empathise with poor and discipline of fasting = can overcome temptation
  • Hajj - for 10 days them humble themselves to God's will

Other ways to engage in G J:

  • Learn Qur'an by heart -> shows patience + perseverance + Allah's revelation will never be lost
  • Contribute to community i.e. social service, running the madrassah or volunteering
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Lesser Jihad

Lesser Jihad means 'holy war'

  • Armed combat against non-Muslim aggressors + only form of war that Islam permits

'Allah loves those who fight for His cause.' Qur'an

Reasons for Military Jihad:

  • Self-defence
  • Strengthening Islam
  • Protecting the freedom of Muslims to practise their faith
  • Protecting Muslims against oppression, which could include overthrowing a tyrannical ruler
  • Punishing an enemy who breaks an oath/ peace agreement
  • Putting right a wrong/ correcting an injustice

Conduct/ guidelines during war:

  • Can only begin when enemy attacks 
  • Fought to bring good 
  • Innocent civilians must not be harmed
  • Crops, animals and property must not be destroyed/damaged
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Disarmament and Pacifism

Disarmament = 'to give up arms'

  • Arms needed against human selfishness and injustice and sometimes for self-defence
  • Only acheived in atmosphere of reconciliation
  • Disarmament = bil.s spent on weaponry can be used for worthwhile causes i.e. abolish poverty

'For Allah loves those who are fair and just' Qur'an

Pacifism is a moral priniciple not a religious belief

  • Lesser jihad is a duty for Muslims
  • Islam sees the ideals of pacifism as just, but believes that sometimes it is necessary to fight
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Terrorism

'Do not take life which Allah has made sacred.' Qur'an

Terrorist groups are made up of individuals with extreme and militant views

  • Use terror tactics to publicise their cause
  • Al Qaeda claim to be fighting a holy war
  • However, many Muslims believe they breach the rules of LJ  as war is only justified in self defence
  • Civilians + property harmed and taking life is strictly forbidden (against Allah's will)
  • Resulted in misinterpretation of Islam -> Terrorists have done more damage to Islam than good
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Nuclear War and Proliferation

Nuclear Proliferation - The increase in nuclear weapons in countries

  • Since WW2, there is understanding that the destructive force of nuc. weapons is so great that they can never be used
  • However, nuc. proliferation still happens...deterrence?
  • No direct references to nuc. warfare in Muslim sacred writings but lots can be applied:

- Muslims strive for peace + believe life is sacred

- Their destructive effects are not in keeping with the principles of lesser jihad

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