Symbol: The Moon and Star.
Holy Book: The Qu'ran.
Place of Worship: The Mosque.
The Five Pillars
- SHAHADAH - Daily Confession of Faith.
- The two fundamental beliefs of Islam are: There is no God but God, and Muhammad is the prophet of God.
- SALAT - Daily Ritual Prayer.
- Muslims pray five times a day; at dawn, midday, afternoon, sunset and evening.
- Muslims pray towards the Ka-ba Shrine in Mecca.
- ZAKAT - Paying the Alms Tax (giving money to charity).
- Every adult who is part of the Muslim community and who has enough money is expected to pay the Alms Tax.
- The rate is 2.5% of the person's possessions.
- SAWM - Fasting During Ramadam.
- During Ramadam, Muslims fast from 3am to 9pm.
- Those fasting must give up food, drink and intercourse.
- HAJJ - Pilgrimage to Mecca.
- A Muslim is expected to go on the Hajj at least once in their lifetime.
- On the Hajj, Muslims go to Mecca, the sacred city of Islam.
- The words of the Qur'an were first given to Muhammed (PBUH) to recite.
- There are 114 chapters called surahs.
- The word Qur'an means 'recitation'.
- The Qur'an was revealed in the Arabic language.
- The Muslims who memorised the whole of the Qur'an are called guardians because even if every copy is destroyed, it will always exist and be kept safe.
- Muslims show respect for the Qur'an by wrapping it in coloth and storing it in the highest place in the room.
- Before reading, Muslims must wash thoroughly and put it on a wooden stand whilst reading.
The Life of Muhammad
- Muhammad (PBUH) was a merchant born in city of Mecca.
- He was concerned about the dishonesst dealings of his people and how they worshipped idols.
- He began to spend periods of time alone in the mountains.
- During one of these stays he recieved a revelation from Allah.
- Allah chose Muhammed as his prophet.
- It came to him through the angel Gabriel. The words that came to him were dictated to scribes and they form the Qur'an, the holy book of Muslims.
- it was rejected in Mecca.
- Muhammed went to Madinah (the journey is known as the hijrah) where many people began listening.
- Muhammad is not worshipped. This is for Allah alone.
Women In Islam
- Required to dress modestly (Hijab).
- Cover body except hands and faces when in the presence of men.
- Seen as a form of protection.
- Not looked upon as objects.
- A symbol of purity.
- Keeping themselves for their husbands.
- Women were created from the same single soul as men.
- Of equal importance, but play different roles.
- Most important function for women is within the home.
- Muhammad showed great respect for women.
- Muhammad believed that women should have the right to work.
- When your parents influence your choice of marriage partner.
- Negative - could lead to forced marriages.
- Positive - you don't need to wait any longer to find a husband/wife.
- Polygammy is the practice of a man being married to more than one woman.
- A Muslim man may marry a Jew or a Muslim but a Muslim woman can only marry a Muslim.
3 Projects - Sanctity of Life
- Muslims believe that life is a sacred gift from Allah.
- Sanctity is the state or quality of being holy sacred or saintly.
- Life is a test which must be bourne with courage.
- When a baby is born and when a person is supposed to die but survives, it is known as a miracle.
- Euthanasia is referred to as mercy killing.
- Muslims are opposed to ethanasia and abortion as they believe that the wilful taking of one's life is wrong, and that only God decides whether you live or die.
3 Projects - Prejudice and Discrimination
- Qur'an teaches that everyone was created by Allah and everyone is equal.
- Differences in colour/race/tribe etc should not be used an excuse for injust treatment.
- "Allah does not look upon your outward appearance; He looks upon your heart and your deeds."
- On Hajj, Muslims wear white garments to show they are all equal in the eyes of God.
3 Projects - Suffering and Evil
- Suffering can be endured by hope and faith.
- Have an acceptance of your suffering.
- "Evil is a cause of suffering; suffering is a result of evil."
- Life is a series of tests, and they must find their own answers.
- God never asks more of them than they can endure.
- God forgives everyone who apologises sincerley.
- One of the names of Allah is The Compassionate.
- Compassion should be shown to those who suffer and relief given to them whenever possible.
- "Hold to forgiveness; command what is right; but turn away from the ignorant."
- Muslims worship in a building called a Mosque.
- They must remove their shoes before entering and a ritual washing is required before prayer.
- Everyone sits on the floor to show everyone is equal.
- They face the Ka-ba Shrine in Mecca when praying.
- Celebrating the time when the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad.
- Begins on the first night the verses were revealed.
- Starts on 9th month of Islamic calendar.
- Muslims use the month for spiritual reflection, prayer, good deeds, and time with family and friends.
- Eid-ul-fur celebration at end of month.
- Fasting intended to teach Muslims self-restraint, discipline and generosity.
- Reminder of the poor who starve.
Life of Guru Nanak
- Founder of Sikhism but born a Hindu.
- It is taught that when he was born, a halo glowed over his head to show he would be a great religious leader.
- The light of God in his eyes.
- He fell asleep watching some cattle so they went into a farmers field and destroyed crops; amazingly the crops regrew.
- He worked at his sister's shop and gave fruit to the poor and they reappeared.
- He went to the river for a ritual purification as Hindus do.
- He disappeared for 3 days.
- He then reappeared and said he had been taken to God's court and had been chosen to spend his life as a Gurgu teaching people about God. "God is not a Hindu or a Muslim".
- WHen he died, his body disappeared by morning.
Sikhism - definitions.
- Sikh - means disciple/follower.
- Gurwara - Gateway to the Guru.
- Nishan Sahib - flag.
- Ik Onkar - opening verse of the Guru Granth Sahib.
- Khanda - symbol.
- Guru Granth Sahib - the Sikh Holy Book.
- The Gurdwara means Gateway to the Guru.
- A Gurwara must have the Guru Granth Sahib/Holy Book.
- It has 4 doors to show that anyone from anywhere has access to it.
- 3 things that occur in a Gurdwara are worship, a community centre and learning classes.
- Before Sikhs enter the divan hall, they take off their shoes, cover their hair and wash their hands.
- Before the Holy Book, they bow and give an offering.
- In the Gurdwara, they all sit down on the floor to show equality.
- To show the Holy Book is treated like a person, they fan it using a Chauri and place it on a bed.
- The Langar is the free meal given to Sikhs. Shows that serving others is important and costs nothing.
- Sera is the act of serving others.
- Reader - Granthi
- Fan - Chauri
- Holy Book - Guru Granth Sahib
- Ragis playing kirtan
- Flag - Nishan Sahib
- Throne - Takht
- Platform - Palki
- Sweet food - Karah Pashad
- Bedroom - Sach Khand
- Men and Women seated seperately
- Pictures of Gurus
- Study room
- Langa Hall
The 5 Ks
- Sikhs who are committed to their faith join the Khalsa. They promise to wear the 5 Ks and follow Sikh values in everyday life.
- Guru Granth Sahin said it was not enough to wear the 5 Ks. Sikhs must remember why they wear them (story of the donkey and the tiger skin).
- KESH - uncut hair - not destroy God's creation.
- KIRPAN - dagger - defend religion and others.
- KACHERA - shorts - modest in their behaviour.
- KANGHA - hair comb - keep life in order.
- KARA - bracelet - God is eternal.
Sikhs believe that after death, the soul takes on a new existence as someone or something - reincarnation. Our new existence depends on Karma - actions have consequences.
We were all good in our past lives :)