Islam and Sikhism - Religion and Philosophy

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Islam

Symbol: The Moon and Star. (http://sharrowcf.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Islam-Symbol.gif)

Person: Muslim. 

Holy Book: The Qu'ran. 

Place of Worship: The Mosque. 

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The Five Pillars

  • SHAHADAH - Daily Confession of Faith. 
  • The two fundamental beliefs of Islam are: There is no God but God, and Muhammad is the prophet of God. 
  • SALAT - Daily Ritual Prayer. 
  • Muslims pray five times a day; at dawn, midday, afternoon, sunset and evening.
  • Muslims pray towards the Ka-ba Shrine in Mecca. 
  • ZAKAT - Paying the Alms Tax (giving money to charity). 
  • Every adult who is part of the Muslim community and who has enough money is expected to pay the Alms Tax.
  • The rate is 2.5% of the person's possessions. 
  • SAWM - Fasting During Ramadam.
  • During Ramadam, Muslims fast from 3am to 9pm.
  • Those fasting must give up food, drink and intercourse.
  • HAJJ - Pilgrimage to Mecca.
  • A Muslim is expected to go on the Hajj at least once in their lifetime.
  • On the Hajj, Muslims go to Mecca, the sacred city of Islam.
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The Qur'an

  • The words of the Qur'an were first given to Muhammed (PBUH) to recite.
  • There are 114 chapters called surahs.
  • The word Qur'an means 'recitation'.
  • The Qur'an was revealed in the Arabic language.
  • The Muslims who memorised the whole of the Qur'an are called guardians because even if every copy is destroyed, it will always exist and be kept safe. 
  • Muslims show respect for the Qur'an by wrapping it in coloth and storing it in the highest place in the room.
  • Before reading, Muslims must wash thoroughly and put it on a wooden stand whilst reading.
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The Life of Muhammad

  • Muhammad (PBUH) was a merchant born in city of Mecca.
  • He was concerned about the dishonesst dealings of his people and how they worshipped idols. 
  • He began to spend periods of time alone in the mountains.
  • During one of these stays he recieved a revelation from Allah.
  • Allah chose Muhammed as his prophet.
  • It came to him through the angel Gabriel. The words that came to him were dictated to scribes and they form the Qur'an, the holy book of Muslims. 
  • it was rejected in Mecca.
  • Muhammed went to Madinah (the journey is known as the hijrah) where many people began listening. 
  • Muhammad is not worshipped. This is for Allah alone.
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Women In Islam

  • Required to dress modestly (Hijab). 
  • Cover body except hands and faces when in the presence of men.
  • Seen as a form of protection. 
  • Not looked upon as objects.
  • A symbol of purity.
  • Keeping themselves for their husbands.
  • Women were created from the same single soul as men.
  • Of equal importance, but play different roles.
  • Most important function for women is within the home.
  • Muhammad showed great respect for women.
  • Muhammad believed that women should have the right to work. 
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Arranged Marriages

  • When your parents influence your choice of marriage partner.
  • Negative - could lead to forced marriages.
  • Positive - you don't need to wait any longer to find a husband/wife.
  • Polygammy is the practice of a man being married to more than one woman.
  • A Muslim man may marry a Jew or a Muslim but a Muslim woman can only marry a Muslim.
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3 Projects - Sanctity of Life

  • Muslims believe that life is a sacred gift from Allah.
  • Sanctity is the state or quality of being holy sacred or saintly.
  • Life is a test which must be bourne with courage.
  • When a baby is born and when a person is supposed to die but survives, it is known as a miracle.
  • Euthanasia is referred to as mercy killing. 
  • Muslims are opposed to ethanasia and abortion as they believe that the wilful taking of one's life is wrong, and that only God decides whether you live or die.
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3 Projects - Prejudice and Discrimination

  • Qur'an teaches that everyone was created by Allah and everyone is equal.
  • Differences in colour/race/tribe etc should not be used an excuse for injust treatment.
  • "Allah does not look upon your outward appearance; He looks upon your heart and your deeds."
  • On Hajj, Muslims wear white garments to show they are all equal in the eyes of God.
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3 Projects - Suffering and Evil

  • Suffering can be endured by hope and faith.
  • Have an acceptance of your suffering. 
  • "Evil is a cause of suffering; suffering is a result of evil."
  • Life is a series of tests, and they must find their own answers.
  • God never asks more of them than they can endure. 
  • God forgives everyone who apologises sincerley. 
  • One of the names of Allah is The Compassionate.
  • Compassion should be shown to those who suffer and relief given to them whenever possible.
  • "Hold to forgiveness; command what is right; but turn away from the ignorant."
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The Mosque

  • Muslims worship in a building called a Mosque.
  • They must remove their shoes before entering and a ritual washing is required before prayer.
  • Everyone sits on the floor to show everyone is equal.
  • They face the Ka-ba Shrine in Mecca when praying. 
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Ramadam

  • Celebrating the time when the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad.
  • Begins on the first night the verses were revealed. 
  • Starts on 9th month of Islamic calendar.
  • Muslims use the month for spiritual reflection, prayer, good deeds, and time with family and friends.
  • Eid-ul-fur celebration at end of month. 
  • Fasting intended to teach Muslims self-restraint, discipline and generosity.
  • Reminder of the poor who starve.
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Life of Guru Nanak

  • Founder of Sikhism but born a Hindu.
  • It is taught that when he was born, a halo glowed over his head to show he would be a great religious leader.
  • The light of God in his eyes.
  • He fell asleep watching some cattle so they went into a farmers field and destroyed crops; amazingly the crops regrew.
  • He worked at his sister's shop and gave fruit to the poor and they reappeared.
  • He went to the river for a ritual purification as Hindus do. 
  • He disappeared for 3 days. 
  • He then reappeared and said he had been taken to God's court and had been chosen to spend his life as a Gurgu teaching people about God. "God is not a Hindu or a Muslim".
  • WHen he died, his body disappeared by morning.
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Sikhism - definitions.

  • Sikh - means disciple/follower.
  • Gurwara - Gateway to the Guru. 
  • Nishan Sahib - flag. 
  • Ik Onkar - opening verse of the Guru Granth Sahib. 
  • Khanda - symbol. 
  • Guru Granth Sahib - the Sikh Holy Book. 
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The Gurdwara

  • The Gurdwara means Gateway to the Guru.
  • A Gurwara must have the Guru Granth Sahib/Holy Book. 
  • It has 4 doors to show that anyone from anywhere has access to it.
  • 3 things that occur in a Gurdwara are worship, a community centre and learning classes.
  • Before Sikhs enter the divan hall, they take off their shoes, cover their hair and wash their hands.
  • Before the Holy Book, they bow and give an offering.
  • In the Gurdwara, they all sit down on the floor to show equality.
  • To show the Holy Book is treated like a person, they fan it using a Chauri and place it on a bed.
  • The Langar is the free meal given to Sikhs. Shows that serving others is important and costs nothing.
  • Sera is the act of serving others. 
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The Gurdwara

  • Reader - Granthi
  • Fan - Chauri 
  • Holy Book - Guru Granth Sahib
  • Ragis playing kirtan 
  • Flag - Nishan Sahib
  • Throne - Takht
  • Platform - Palki
  • Sweet food - Karah Pashad
  • Bedroom - Sach Khand
  • Men and Women seated seperately 
  • Library
  • Pictures of Gurus 
  • Study room
  • Kitchen
  • Langa Hall
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The 5 Ks

  • Sikhs who are committed to their faith join the Khalsa. They promise to wear the 5 Ks and follow Sikh values in everyday life.
  • Guru Granth Sahin said it was not enough to wear the 5 Ks. Sikhs must remember why they wear them (story of the donkey and the tiger skin). 
  • KESH - uncut hair - not destroy God's creation. 
  • KIRPAN - dagger - defend religion and others.
  • KACHERA - shorts - modest in their behaviour. 
  • KANGHA - hair comb - keep life in order.
  • KARA - bracelet - God is eternal.

Sikhs believe that after death, the soul takes on a new existence as someone or something - reincarnation. Our new existence depends on Karma - actions have consequences. 

We were all good in our past lives :) 

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