- Created by: ilansiva30
- Created on: 07-04-18 14:13
The oneness of God
Islam is a monotheistic religion meaning that Muslims (people who follow the religion of Islam.) believe that there is only one god. The belief in one God is known as Tawhid.
The following quote from the Qur'an is used to explain this belief:
"He is god the one (There is only one god), God the eternal (God has always existed). He begot no one nor was He begotten (God was not born or came into being out of something else, god does not 1have children), no one is comparable to Him (God is unique)." - Quran
BELIEF IN TAWHID MEANS THAT MUSLIMS SHOULD:
- Worship only one god.
- Never making anything in their lives more important than god as god has no equal.
- Not use images of God, as it is impossible to portray God accurately.
The supremacy of God's will
THE SUPREMACY OF GOD'S WILL:
Muslims believe god's will is supreme (most powerful). It means that nothing happens unless god allows it to happen. Muslims try to live according to God's will in their everyday lives, accepting God knows best.
APPLY YOUR KNOWLEDGE THAT YOU HAVE LEARNT IN THE LAST TWO CARDS TO ANSWER THE BELOW QUESTIONS:
A - Give two beliefs about God found in Qur'an and explain what each teaches Muslims about God.
B - 'Tawhid is the most important belief in Islam because it influences everything that Muslims do.' Evaluate this statement.
Sunni vs Shi'a Islam
Muhammad was the last and most important of the prophets in Islam. After Muhammad died, there were disagreements about who should succeed him as the leader of the Islam. The religion split into two branches: Sunni and Shi'a
THE SIX ARTICLES OF FAITH IN ISLAM:
Tawhid, Angels, The holy books, the prophets, the day of judgement and the supremacy of god's will. Don't worry if you don't understand the definition of these words - we will get to them later!
THE FIVE ROOTS OF 'USUL AD-DIN IN SHI'A ISLAM:
Tawhid, prophethood, The justice of god (fair and just), the imamate (respect for the 12 Imams) and Resurrection. Don't worry if you don't understand the definition of these words - we will get to them later!
The nature of God - Immanent, Beneficient & Transe
There are 99 different names for god listed in the holy books. These names describe god's qualities and help to give Muslims some idea of what god is like.
God is present everywhere in the world and the universe. God is within all things and is involved with life on Earth.
God is benevolent: all-loving and all-good. God's generosity is seen in his gift to humans of everything they need to live on Earth.
God created the universe, so is beyond and outside it. He is not limited by the physical world. Muslims believe that God can be both Transcendent and Immanent (present everywhere) because althouogh he created the univer (so is outside it), he is also within all things and able to act within it.
The nature of God - Omnipotent, Merciful & Fair an
God is all powerful. God has the power to create and sustain everything in the universe. God is aware of everything, including human actions and thoughts.
God shows compassion and mercy. God cares for people and understands and understands their suffering. God forgives people who are truly sorry for the things they have done wrong.
FAIR & JUST:
God treats evryone fairly and justly. God will judge all people equally on the day of judgement. Shi'a Muslims in particular believe that people have full responsibility for their actions, and god will reward or punish people depending on the choices they make.
Angels are spiritual beings who serve god and pass on his word to peop,e through the prophets. Jibril is the angel of revelation, who revealed the Qur'an to Muhammad. Mika'il is the angel of mercy, who rewards good deeds and provides nourishment for the earth and human life.
THE NATURE AND THE ROLE OF ANGELS
- are spiritual beings, created by God from light.
- are pure and sinless.
- have no free will, so can only do what God wants them to do.
- are able to take on human form to give messages to people.
- constantly serve and praise God.
Muslims believe that angels have a number of different roles:
- Messengers of god
- take care of people
- record everything a person does
- take people's souls to god.
Jibril vs Mika'il
The angel of revelation. Purified Muhammad's heart when he was a child, so he would later be able to recieve God's revelation. Recited the Qur'an to Muhammad and continued to pass on God's messages to Muhammad to guide him through the rest of his life. Therefore played an important role in communicating the final version of Islam to humanity.
The angel of mercy. Responsible for sending rain, thunder and lightning to earth. Brings nourishment to Earth, and helps to provide food for humans by sending rain to the ground. Believed to reward people who do good deeds.
Predestination is the idea that god determines everything that will happen in the universe. Most Muslims believe that predestination means god knows everything that will happen, but people still have free will and can make their own choices. Most muslims believe that they are responsible for their own actions, and will be rewarded or punished for them by god on the Day of judgement (a day in which muslims believe that they will be judged by God and will be punished or rewarded for their actions).
In Islam, ideas about predestination vary. Some Sunni Muslims believe that God has already determined everything that will happen in the universe. They believe that:
- written down everything in a 'book of decrees'
- because God created people, the must act according to him.
- God's will is so powerful - able to make anything happen.
- humans do not have the freedom to change their destiny.
The following Quote from the Qur'an is used to support this belief:
"Only what God has decreed will happen to us." - Qur'an
CONTRASTING BELIEF - NEXT CARD
Predestination - Contrasting Belief
In contrast, many Shi'a Muslims believe that God knows everything that is going to happen, but this does not mean he decides what is going to happen. They believ that:
- As god is the creator of time, he is outside time and so not bound by it. This means that god can see everything that happens in the past, present and future.
- God knows what choice people will make, but they still have the free will to make these choices for themselves.
The following quote from the Qur'an is used to support this belief:
"God does not change the condition of a people (for the worse) unless they chane what is in themselves." - Qur'an
THE DAY OF JUDGEMENT:
- Muslims who believe they have the free will to make their own choices also believe they will be judged by God for these choices.
- Believe that they will be rewarded ot punished.
Life after Death - Akhirah
Muslims believe in Akhirah - everlasting life after death. Muslims believe that after death the following three stages happen:
After death, the state of waiting until the day of judgement is called barzakh which means a 'barrier'. People are unable to come back across the barrier to right wrongs or to warn people. While they are waiting, God sends two angels to question them about their faith. Depending on how they answer, they will either see the rewards or punishments.
THE DAY OF JUDGEMENT
Everyone who has ever lived will be raised from the dead (resurrected). Everyone will be given their own 'book of deeds' (a record of everything that they have done). If they are given the book in right hand, they will go to heaven; if they are given in their left hand, they will go to hell.
HEAVEN & HELL
Rewarded with heaven or punished with hell. Heaven = presence of god/ a garden of happiness. Hell is described as a place of fire and torment - where people are separated from God.
Importance of belief in Akhirah
Belief in Akhirah encourages Muslims to:
- take responsibility for their actions - they know what will happen on the day of judgment.
- Give hope to Muslims who suffer - they know there is something better to look forward to.
- accept unjust situations - They know God will provide justice in the afterlife.
Prophethood refers to when someone is made a prophet; a messenger of God's word. Risalah is belief in the prophets and their importance as messengers of god.
Muslims believe that:
- prophethood is a gift from God to help humans to understand his message.
- When people have forgotten, misunderstood or changed God's message, God has sent prophets to call people back to the right path.
- There have been around 124,000 prophets, who have been sent to every nation on Earth.
- Muhammad was the last and most important of the prophets.
Prophets are important in Islam because they are good role models and help Muslims to understand how to follow god.
Prophet - Adam
Considered to be the father of the human race and the first prophet.
God created from the dust of the ground. God gave Adam knowledge abd he taught Adam names of all things. God told the angels to bow down to Adam out of respect for his knowledge. Iblis (Satan) refused to bow down to Adam. so god threw him out of paradise. God created Hawwa (Eve) to keep Adam company. God told Adam and Hawwa they could eat anything except the fruit from the forbidden tree. Iblis decieved Hawwa and Adam into eating from the tree. God expelled Adam and Hawwa from the garden and their actions brought sin into the world. God forgave Adam after he accepted his mistake and he became the first prophet.
Adam is important to Muslims because God gave him knowledge and understanding. God taught Adam how to live a good life in obedience to God, and Adam passed on his knowledge to the rest of the human race through his descendants.
Prophet - Ibrahim
Ibrahim (prophet) is a good role model for Muslims because he always had faith in God and showed obedience to God, at a time when many people worshipped a variety of Gods and idols (statues).
Ibrahim is important because...
- he fulfilled all the tests and commands given to him by God.
- he showed great faith in God.
- he is a good role model for Muslims.
- Muhammad was one of his descendants through his son, Ishmael
- he proclaimed belief in only one god at a time when people worshipped many different idols.
He was a good role model because he rebuilt the Ka'aba (a small, cube-shaped building in the centre of the Grand Mosque in Makkah) which got destroyed in the great flood. He was also willing to sacrifice his son to god when he had a dream in which God asked him to sacrifice his son to him. However, just before he carried out the sacrifice, God stopped him.
Prophet - Muhammad
Muhammad is the last and most important prophet in Islam. He recieved the final revelation of Islam from God, which is recorded in the Qur'an.
REVELATION OF THE QUR'AN: Muhammad grew up in Makkah (Mecca) and he would sometimes visit a cave in the mountains nearby to meditate and pray. In 610 CE, Muhammad visited the cave and experienced a revelation from the angel Jibril. Over the next 22 years or so years, Muhammad continued ro recieve revelations from Jibril. These were combined together to form the Qur'an.
CONQUERING THE MAKKAH: Muhammad started challenging people in Makkah to follow God's teachings. He was persecuted for his preaching and fled with his followers to Madinah. In Madinah he united warring tribes, and with their help he conquered Makkah, converting the city to Islam. This firmly established Islam as a religion.
THE NIGHT JOURNEY: Before Muhammad fled to Madinah, the angel Jibril took him on a miraculous journey to Jerusalem and then into heaven, where he spoke to prophets and saw great signs of God. In heaven, Muhammad agreed with God taht Muslims should pray five times a day.
Shi'a Muslims believe in the importance of the Imamate: the leadership of the Imams. Shi'a Muslims believe that as the Imams have been appointed by God, they are able to maintain and interpret Islamic teachings without fault.
The leader of Shi'a Muslims is called the Imam. Shi'as believe the Imam should be a descendant of Muhammad and chosen by God. There have been twelve Imams in total. Each has been related to Muhammad in some way. They are able to interpret the Qur'an and Islamic law without fault. Imams are important because people need divine guidance on how to live correctly.
The holy books in Islam
The Qur'an is the most important holy book in Islam, and the highest source of authority for all matters relating to Islamic teaching, practice and law.
- Includes a mixture of historical accounts and advice on how to follow God.
- Written in Arabic.
- Contains 114 Surahs (chapters), roughly arrranged in order of length.
- the foundation of evry believer's faith.
- Nearly every chapter starts with the words 'In the name of God, the Lod of Mercy, the Giver of Mercy'
OTHER HOLY BOOKS - ISLAM
Muslims believe there are other holy books that have been revealed by God. These holy books are mentioned in the Qur'an. Some Muslims think that these books have been compltely lost and no longer exist today. Others think they can still be found to some extent in the Bible. However, the original text has been corrupted or distorted, so it does not have the same authority as the Qur'an. These books include the Torah (revealed to Moses - Musa), The Psalms (Revealed to David), The Gospel (Revealed to Jesus - Isa) and The scrolls of Abraham (revealed to Ibrahim)>
Islam Beliefs & Teachings - Questions
‘To describe God as ‘omnipotent’ is the best way to understand God.’ Evaluate this statement. In your answer you should:
- refer to Muslim teaching
- give reasoned arguments to support this statement
- give reasoned arguments to support a different point of view
- reach a justified conclusion.
Explain two Muslim teachings about angels. Refer to sacred writings or another source of Muslim belief and teaching in your answer.
Explain two ways in which a belief in life after death influences Muslims today.
Give two of the Holy books, other than the Qur’an.
Which one of the following best describes the meaning of Tawhid?A Prophethood
- Oneness of God
- Life after Death.