Ionizing Radiation

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  • Created by: Alice
  • Created on: 01-05-13 16:16

Isotopes

Isotopes are different atoms of the same element They have a different number of neutrons but the same number of protons

(http://www.sms.rcs.k12.tn.us/TEACHERS/alfordt/Science%20Links/images/techniq1.gif)

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Alpha

Alpha

  • Large size (2 Protons, 2 Neutrons)
  • +2
  • 16,000 km/s (15% speed of light)
  • Large charge - Ionise other particles easier as they pass
  • Gets stopped by paper(http://www.radfreenm.org/images/ALPHA2.GIF)
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Beta

Beta

  • 8000 x smaller than Alpha
  • -1
  • 270,000 km/s (99% of speed of light)
  • weigh only tiny raction of Proton and Neutron - Interact with less particles than Alpha
  • Gets stopped by Alliminium
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Gamma

Gamma

  • Small size (Smallest)
  • 0
  • 300,000 km/s 
  • Low penetrating power - Smallest
  • Gets stopped by Lead(http://www.physics.isu.edu/radinf/images/gamma.gif)
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Alpha, Beta, Gamma (Diagram)

(http://www.vae.lt/images/spinduliavimas_skylant_branduoliui_en.gif)

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Geiger - Muller Counter

The device that is used to measure Ionising Radiation is called the Geiger - Muller Counter

(http://www.darvill.clara.net/nucrad/images/am-gmtube.gif)

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Alpha - Causing Ionisation

(http://www.emc2-explained.info/Emc2/decay_a-decay.gif)

Alpha Particles have a large positive charge. When an alpha partice passes close to an atom, it can pull an negatively charged electron out of orbit

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Beta - Causing Ionisation

Beta Particles which are negatively charged, cause ionisation in a similar way to Alpha Partices. But intead of pulling and electron out of orbit, they push it out and repel against each other. 

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Gamma - Causing Ionization

Gamma rays can interact with the electrons orbiting and atom and tranfer energy to them. If the electron get enough energy, it can break free from the atom. 

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Gamma Decay

Gamma radiation does not change because it has 0 Protons and Neutrons and so has not lost anything

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