ionic bonding AS Chemistry

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ionic bonding

cations are positve and are attracted to negativly charged anions 

group one and 2 metals are the most likely to lose their electrons to form cations

when some atoms become ions they polarise so they pull the electrons back because the ion is so small

groups 6 and 7 are the most likely to gain electrons and become anions

the anode is the postive electrode and the negative electrode is the cathode

atoms react in a way to try to become isoelectronic with a the noble gas at the end of the period the element is in


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The structure of ionically bonded things 

they will form ionic lattices as the opposite charges are pulled together

 the co ordination number ( the number of ions that are attracted to one of the other ions ) depends on 

  • the charge of the ion 
  • the radius

cations get smaller as they have fewer electrons but the same positive charge which pulls in all of the remaining electrons as well as there being less repulsion between the electrons in the outer shell to the last full shell

Anions get bigger as they take on one more electron so they are held in place less strongly by the fewer protons ( less of a pull ) and you have more repiulsion from the electrons now there is one more added.

the size of an ion increases down a group because

  • there is another electron shell 
  • more sheilding 
  • more protons

the strength of an ionic bond depends on 

  • the charge of the ion
  • the size of the ion looking at its radius
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features and reasons for it being like that 

high melting  and boiling points - becuasee strong bonds are formed between the oppositewly charged ions which require lots of energy to break  as they are strongly attracted to one another

they are soluble- because they contain opposite charges like water which means that the differently charged parts of the ionic lattice are both  attracted to the water and therefore can be dissolved the water will form spheres of hydration around the ions and the oppositly charged part of the water will be attracted to the ion

conduct electrcity - ONLY WHEN MOLTON OR IN SOLUTION because the ions will move to the oppositly charge electrodes and will carry a current 

hard brittle structure- becuase if you move the ions in the regularly arranged lattice you will get to ions which have the same charge next  to one another and therefore they will repel one another and this makes them brittle

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Comments

MU

Thanks for this, really helpful just learned this today :) **

Bilal Ibrar

looks pretty useful thanks :)

Chloe Thorn

glad it helped you both :)

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