Ionic Bonding

How to ionic bond and properties of ionic compounds

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What is Ionic Bonding?

Ionic Bonding is when a metal and a non metal combine ionically to form an ionic compound.

  • The metal will always lose electrons to form a full outer shell. The metal will become positively charged.
  • The non metal will always gain electrons to form a full outer shell. The non metal will become negatively charged.
  • The ions formed are held together by an electrostatic force of acttraction which is called an ionic bond.
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Examples

For some examples, please follow this link:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_aqa/atomic/ionicrev5.shtml

we represent ionic bonding by using dot and cross diagrams

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Ionic reactions

Here are some examples of ionic reactions forming ionic compounds:

  • sodium + chlorine → sodium chloride
  • magnesium + oxygen → magnesium oxide
  • calcium + chlorine → calcium chloride

In each reaction there is a metal reacting with a non metal to form a new ionic compound made up of the metal and the non metal.

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The General Properties of Ionic Compounds

1. High melting and boiling points

The ionic bond is very strong and so large amounts of energy is required to seperate the bonds.

2. Conduct electricity when molten or in aeqeus solution

When solid, the ions are fixed in position and can't move. Once heated the ions are free to move. The electrical current is a flow of ions.

3. Most ionic compounds are water soluble

4. They form crystals.

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