Ionic Compounds

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Ionic Compounds

Transfer of electrons

Giant ionic lattice

Very strong electrostatic forces of attraction

High melting and boiling points due to strong attraction

When they are melted, the ions are free to move and they'll carry the current

Dissolve easily 

Can carry electric current when ions are dissolved because the ions are free to move

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Pure iron is too bendy so it is changed into alloys. This is called steel

Low carbon steel - easily shaped - car bodies

High carbon steel - very hard and inflexible - blades for cutting tools, bridges

Stainless steel - corrosion resistant - cutlery, containers for corrosive substances

An alloy is when 2 metals or a non metal and a metal are mixed together

Copper + tin = bronze

Copper + nickel = cupronickel 

Gold alloys are used to make jewellery

Aluminium alloys are used to make aircraft

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Mortar, Concrete and Cement

Powdered limestone is heated in a kiln with powdered clay to make cement

Cement can be mixed with sand and water to make mortar

Mix cement with sand and aggregate (water and gravel) to make concrete

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Uses of Aluminium and Titanium


Corrosion resistant

Low density

Pure aluminium isn't strong but forms hard, strong alloys

Aeroplanes are usually made from aluminium


Low dentisy

Very strong

Corrosion resistant

Replacement hips are made from titanium

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Phytomining and Bioleaching


Involves planting certain plants on low grade copper ores. The plants absorb copper compounds. Burning the plants produces ash that is rich in copper compounds


Some bacteria can obtain their nutrients and energy from copper compounds in copper ores. The bacteria produce solutions of copper compounds. Chemical reactions or electrolysis extract copper metal from these solutions. The process is very slow. 

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Steam Distillation

Used to extract lavender oil

Heat the water so that it boils and begins to steam

Allow the steam to pass through the plant material. The volatile oils in the lavender vaporise

The steam and plant oil vapour move to the condenser. Here they cool and become liquid

The beaker contains lavender oil and water

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Plant Oils - Food

Vegetable oils provide alot of energy - they have a high energy content

Vegetable oils contain essential fatty acids which the body needs for many metabolic processes

Higher boiling point than water - cook foods at higher temperatures and a higher speed

Gives food a different flavour

Increases the energy we get from it

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Monomer = Polymer

Low density polyethene - Plastic bags

Waterproof coatings for fabrics are made from polymers

Dental polymers are used in resin tooth fillings

Hydrogel wound dressings 

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Evolution of the Atmosphere


Volcanos gave out lots of gases. The oceans formed when the water vapour condensed


Carbon dioxide was dissolved into the oceans.

Green plants and algae also absorbed some of the carbon dioxide and produced oxygen by photosynthesis


Oxygen created the ozone layer which blocked harmful rays from the Sun and enabled even more complex organisms to evolve

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Primordial Soup

Theory states that the early atmosphere was made of nitrogen, hydrogen, ammonia and methane. 

Lightning struck, causing a chemical reaction between the gases resulting in the formation of amino acids

Amino acids collected in a primordial soup - a body of water out of which life gradually crawled

Amino acids gradually combined to produce organic matter which eventually evolved into simple organisms

Miller and Urey carried the experiment out - sealed the gases in their apparatus, heated them and applied an electrical charge for a week. They found that amino acids where made

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