Anysis and presentation
One tail/ Directional- The direction the experiment will go in either up or down,
Two tall/ Non directional- Will not state a direction, but a will be a change
Null- Nothing will happen, if something does wil be to chance
This is the way that participants are found
Random- Is like picking a name out of a hat everyone has the chance to be picked.
Opportunity- Is using how ever is avaible at the time this doesn't give everyone a chance as not everyone will be there at that time.
Volunteer- Is when the participant puts themselves forward to be part of the experiment, normally found through a add in the paper or poster.
Right to withdraw
Labraotry in a controlled environment
Strength- Control over varibales
Weaknesses- No ecologically valid
Field in the natural environment of others
Strength- Is ecologically Valid
Weaknesses- Cannot be generalised to everything
Natural things like natural disasters
Strength- Is high in ecologically Validity
Weaknesses- Cannot control varibales
Independent Variable is the variable that the researcher minipulates, they have 2 conditions in an experiment.
Dependent varibale is the variable that is measured at the end of the experiment
Extranous is when things such as how much sleep a participant has has can effect the out come of the experiment
Independent is two groups in which they do one of the conditions and thats all,
Strength for this is that it reduces the order effects
Weaknesses is Individual differences people will have
Repeated is two groups and both groups do both conditions using ABBA, meaning one group does condition A then B while the other do B then A.
Strength of this is there is no individual differences
Weakness is Order effects
Matched pairs this is when there is two groups with the people in each group being similair to others in group by such as age, gender, background.
Strenght of it is there is no individual differences
Weaknesses is that it is very time consuming to get them matched up
Non- Experimental types
Observational, these are either done naturalistcally normally on animals or labroratory where behaviour can be seen as being artifiial
Participant, this can be done either Coverty or Overty, Coverty is when they are undercover and involved in the group ( no one knows who they are and where they are) Overty is when a few people know what the researcher is doing and who they are
Non participant is when the researcher stays external from the group and observse that way
A strength of paricipation is it is high in ecological validity
Weakness of is it that it is very time consuming, costly and can be dangerous
Survery, can either be questionnaires or interviews.
Questionnaires is when the participant answers question on a specific area, the questions can be closed which produces quantitative data or numbers and statistics, Open which produces qualitiative data with wider explanations on areas. They can also be leading so that the researcher get the answer that they want.
Strength of this is that it is easy enough to carry out and answer
Weakness of it is the response rate is very low
Interviews can be structed or unstructed, structred is when the research or person who has been paid to do it for researcher has got a pre-set lists of questions and they cannot add to that or ask additional ones. Unstructed is they have a few set questions but can ask more questions when areas of intrest arise.
Strength of this is the flexibility of the qeustions that can be asked
Weakess is it is very time comsuming for both participant and researcher
Case Studies, are indepth and longitudinal studies. Normally on individuals or very small groups. They can ask people who know participant very well questions about them and also look at education and health records.
Strength of this is it provides rich and interesting data
Weakness of it is that it can be bias from the researcher