Berne (1968) created 3 ego states: child, parent, adult
child: emotional, poorly controlled way, sulky, when drunk or hyper we retreat to child mode
parent: critical and nuturing, conditioning
adult: reason and logic, emotions under control
Freud said the personality consisted of three parts
id: basic human insticts
super ego: moral
Laing (the divided self, 1962)
Three experiences which Laing labelled as follows:
- Engulfment: the fear of being swallowed up, suffocated by others involvement
- Implosion: the fear the world at any moment will come crashing in and obliterate their identity.
- Petrification/depersonalisation- the fear of being turned into stone or being braon washed
Jung (1963) identified 3 elements to the psyche: consciousness, personal unconsciousness and collective unconsciousness.
- consciousness: known directly to the person: 2 attitudes introversion and extroversion
- personal unconsciousness: depressed or forgotten feelings, only directly available to us through therapy or direct trauma
- collective unconsciousness: inherited from our ancestors
Perception of self
The way we see ourselves affects how we communicate. This is called self concept, it consists of 3 elements: self image, ideal self and self esteem.
- self esteem: social roles- the parts we play either ascribed or achieved, personality traits- statements about what we think we are like.
- self image: various versions of the self which are imaged- social, physical or physiological selves portrayed.
- Ideal self: what we aspire to be