Interwar Years 4 Marker Points

  • Created by: jB1rd_
  • Created on: 12-04-19 09:41

Wilson's Ideas for Peace

  • Don't be too harsh on Germany
  • Strengthen Democracy
  • Give Self-Determination to small countries that had once been part of European empires
  • International Co-operation
  • League of Nations to be set up
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The Fourteen Points

  • Free Trade
  • Disarmament
  • Self-Determination
  • League of Nations to be set up
  • Free access to the sea in peace or wartime
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Paris Peace Conference

  • Took place in Palace of Versailles
  • Lasted 12 months
  • 32 supposed to be represented but no one from defeated countries invited
  • 5 treaties drawn up at the conference
  •  All important decisions made by Big Three
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Lloyd George's Ideas for Peace

  • Faced public pressures for a harsh treaty
  • Did not want to leave Germany wanting revenge
  • Saw Germany as a future trade opportunity
  • Was the middle ground
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Clemenceau's Ideas for Peace

  • France had suffered enormous damage
  • Wanted to crush Germany
  • Felt they needed to weaken Germany as much as possible so they could never be a threat again
  • Disagreed with Wilson
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Terms of the Treaty of Versailles

  • War Guilt
  • Reparations - £6,600 million
  • German Territories and Borders altered
  • Germany's armed forces reduced
  • League of Nations set up
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Germany's Borders

  • Rhineland became a demilitarised zone
  • Saarland to be run by League of Nations, a plebiscite to be held after 15 years
  • North Schleswig to Denmark after a vote
  • Danzig ran by League of Nations giving Poland access to the sea
  • West Prussia and Posen to Poland
  • Upper Silesia to Poland
  • A union between Austria and Germany was forbidden
  • Part of East Prussia to Lithuania
  • Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia became independent states. Germany had taken them from Russia in 1918
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German Armed Forces

  • Army limited to 100,000 men
  • Conscription was banned
  • Germany not allowed armoured vehicles, submarines or aircraft
  • Navy could only have 6 battleships
  • Rhineland became a demilitarised zone
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German Reaction to Treaty

  • War Guilt - germans particularly hated it, felt they did not start the war or at least blame should be shared
  • Disarmament - felt army was too small and was an area of pride for Germans. Nobody else was disarming
  • LofN and 14 points - germans did not believe the treatment was in keeping with 14 points and were insulted by not being invited to join L of N
  • They were angry they had not been represented at the peace talks
  • Loss of territory was a major blow to German pride and economy
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Treaty of St Germain 1919

  • Dealt with Austria
  • Army limited to 30,000 men
  • Austro-Hungarian empire broke up
  • Austria Suffered severe economic problems as a result
  • Tyrol lost to Italy
  • Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Romania got land
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Treaty of Neuilly 1919

  • Dealt with Bulgaria
  • Bulgaria lost land to Greece, Romania and Yugoslavia 
  • The army was limited to 20,000 and it had to pay 10 million in reparations
  • Bulgaria treated less harshly than other German allies overall
  • Land to Yugoslavia, Romania and Greece
  • 2.25 billion francs
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Treaty of Trianon 1920

  • Dealt with Hungary
  • Hungary lost territory to Romania, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia
  • Hungary was due to pay reparations but its economy was so weak it never did
  • Signed in Trianon
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Treaty of Sevres

  • 50,000 soldiers, seven sailboats and six torpedo boats
  • nothing in reparations
  • lost Smyrna and East Thrace to Greece, Rhodes to Italy
  • new countries : Kurdistan, Armenia, Hejaz (Arabia), Iraq and Palestine became British mandates, Syria became a French mandate
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