Steps to War - Causes of WWII

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Hitler's Aims and Foreign Policy

CAUSED ANSCHLUSS

- AIM TO UNITE ALL GERMAN SPEAKING PEOPLE UNDER HIS RULE

- MEANT THAT HE WOULD TRY TO BRING THE 7 MILLION GERMAN SPEAKING PEOPLE IN AUSTRIA BACK

CAUSED TAKEOVER OF SAAR AND SUDETENLAND

- AIM TO GAIN TERRITORY FOR GERMANY AND PROVIDE LIVING SPACE FOR GERMAN PEOPLE

- MEANT THAT HE WOULD TRY TO REGAIN LAND INHABITED BY GERMANS

CAUSED REARMAMENT AND REMILITERISATION OF RHINELAND

- AIM TO MAKE GERMANY A GREAT POWER AGAIN

- MEANT THAT HE WOULD TRY AND PROVE IT BY BUILDING UP MILITARY FORCES AND GOOD DEFENCE

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Rearmament

GAVE HITLER CONFIDENCE

- HE HAD SUCCESSFULLY REVERSED TERMS OF TREATY - LEAD ONTO REVERSING OTHER TERMS

HIGHLIGHTED HOW EMPTY HIS PROMISES WERE

- SIGNED A TEN YEAR NON AGGRESSION PACT WITH POLAND IN 1934 - PLEASED BRITAIN AND CONVINCED THEM THAT HITLERS AIMS WERE PEACEFUL - BROKEN IN 1939 WHEN HE INVADED CZECHOSLOVAKIA

- SIGNED ANGLO-GERMAN NAVAL AGREEMENT - LIMITED GERMAN NAVY TO 35% OF BRITISH FLEET - HITLER ABUSED THE FACT THAT IT DID NOT MENTION SUBMARINES - TOOK ADVANTAGE AND REARMED

PROVED THAT AUSTRALIA WERE ON HIS SIDE

- AUSTRIAN NAZI PARTY HAD OBEYED HITLER WHEN HE HAD TOLD THEM TO FIGHT FOR ANSCHLUSS - MUSSOLINI ONLY THING THAT HAD PREVENTED IT

 

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Remilitersation of Rhineland

GAVE HITLER CONFIDENCE

  • SUCCESSFULLY REVERSED TREATY - CONFIDENCE TO GO FURTHER E.G. ANSCHLUSS
  • GONE AGAINST ADVICE OF GENERALS AND BEEN PROVED RIGHT

LEAD TO SIGNING OF ROME-BERLIN AXIS

  • GOT MUSSOLINI ON HIS SIDE - SECOND ATTEMPT AT ANSCHLUSS WOULD NOT FAIL
  • STARTED TO DIVIDE EUROPE
  • GAVE HITLER OPPERTUNITY TO TEST NEW WEAPONS AND TRAIN SOLDIERS WHEN SUPPORTING FASCIST GENERAL IN SPANISH CIVIL WAR - BUILDING UP ARMY

CAUSED MOVEMENT TOWARDS REARMAMENT IN BRITAIN

  • AGAINST AGREEMENTS OF LEAGUE THAT BRITAIN WOULD NOT REARM - GAVE GERMANY EXCUSE TO DO SO
  • KEPT TENSIONS HIGH - COUNTRIES PREPARING FOR WAR

CAUSE OF APPEASEMENT

SIGNIFIED AGGRESSION - CHAMBERLAIN WANTED NEGOTIATION AND NOT FORCE

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Anschluss

GAVE HITLER CONFIDENCE

  • MANAGED TO REVERSE TERMS OF TREATY
  • CONFIDENCE LEAD TO OTHER ATTACKS
  • PROVED STRENGTH OF ALLIANCE WITH MUSSOLIINI - ANSCHLUSS HAD NOT BEEN STOPPED - HIGHLIGHTED DIVIDE IN EUROPE

GERMANY HAD GAINED RESOURCES

  • GERMANY HAD RECOURCES OF AUSTRIA
  • MADE GERMANY STRONGER AND MORE LIKELY TO CARRY OUT OTHER ATTACKS E.G. SUDETENLAND CRISIS
  • LEAD TO SUDETENLAND CRISIS
  • HITLER NOW HAD THREE SIDES OF SUDETENLAND
  • PUT HITLER NI STRONG POSITION TO ATTACK

CAUSE OF APPEASEMENT

-AGGRESSION - CHAMBERLAIN WANTED NEGOTIATION AND NOT FORCE

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Appeasement

UNRELIABLE WAY OF KEEPING PEACE

- DEPENDED ON TRUSTING HITLER - COULD NOT BE TRUSTED - HAD BROKEN SO MANY PROMISES

- ALLOWED HITLER TO INCREASE STRENGTH AND POWER

MADE BRITAIN LOOK WEAK

- GAVE HITLER CONFIDENCE THAT BRITAIN WOULD NOT OPPOSE ACTION TAKEN AGAINST TREATY

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Sudetenland Crisis

CHANGED BRITAINS ATTITUDE TOWARDS HITLER

- HITLER HAD PROVED THAT HE COULD NOT BE TRUSTED

- BRITAIN REALISED THAT HITLER DID NOT HAVE PEACEFUL INTENTIONS

- MADE BRITAIN PREPARE FOR WAR

LEFT CZECHOSLOVAKIA VULNERABLE TO ATTACK

- LEAD TO MUNICH AGREEMENT WHICH LEAD TO CZECHOSLOVAKIA BEING VULNERABLE

- LEAD TO ATTACK OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA         

- THIS WOULD MARK END OF APPEASEMENT

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Munich Agreement

GAVE HITLER CONFIDENCE

- MAINTAINED PEACE BUT MADE BRITAIN LOOK WEAK

- MADE HITLER BELIEVE BRITAIN WOULD NOT OPPOSE EXPANSION

- LEAD TO OCCUPATION OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA

GAINED RESOURCES OF SUDETENLAND

- HITLER BUILDING UP ARMY

- BECOMING STRONGER

 

 

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Munich Agreement

HITLER REALISED THAT BRITAIN WOULD NOT PROTECT USSR OR POLAND IF INVADED

- USSR HAD BEEN EXCLUDED FROM CONFERENCE

- LEAD TO HITLER INVADING POLAND - TRIGGER CAUSE FOR WAR

MORE MOVEMENT TOWARDS REARMAMENT IN BRITAIN

- PREPARING FOR WAR

- BUILDING UP ARMER FORCES

- WEAPONS INVOLVED - TENSION

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Takeover of Czechoslovakia

END OF APPEASEMENT

  • HITLER PROVED THAT HE COULD NOT BE TRUSTED
  • DIDN'T REVERSE TREATY - WENT AGAINST PROMISES 
  • TENSION BUILT

MADE BRITAIN SIGN AGREEMENT TO PROTECT POLAND

  • HITLER WANTED DANZIG
  • IF HITLER TRIED TO TAKE OVER, WAR WOULD START

CONSCRIPTION INTRODUCED TO BRITAIN

  • MOVEMENT TOWARDS WAR IN BRITAIN - PREPARING FOR WAR

HITLER WITHDREW NON-AGGRESSION PACT WITH POLAND

  • MEANT THAT HE COULD INVADE
  • IF HE INVADED, BRITAIN WOULD GET INVOLVED, CAUSING WAR
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Nazi-Soviet pact

MADE ATTACK OF POLAND INEVITABLE

- HITLER HAD PREVENTED DANGER OF WAR ON TWO FRONTS

- WAR OF TWO FRONTS HAD BEEN THE DOWNFALL OF GERMANY IN WWII

ATTACK ON POLAND WOULD LEAD TO WAR

- BRITAIN HAD SIGNED PACT - BRITAIN WOULD GET INVOLVED IN POLAND ATTACK

- SINCE POLAND ATTACK WAS INEVITABLE, WAR OF EUROPE WAS

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