International Relations

internatonal relations

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  • Created by: Abby
  • Created on: 19-12-11 13:22


A temporary suspension of hostilities agreed by the warring parties

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The big three

Woodrow Wilson - America 

Lloyd George - Britain

Georges Clemenceau - France 

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Clemenceau Aims

  • Wants Germany to be punished 
  • Revenge for Germany killing all their men
  • Blame Germany for the war
  • Wanted Alsace-Lorraine back
  • Germany to have no army
  • Demilitarised Rhineland
  • Wanted Germany to pay for all damages (reparations)
  • Wanted League of Nations to have an army otherwise he thought it would be too weak and just a 'talking shop'. 
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Lloyd George's Aims

  • Thought that Germany was guilty but that they shouldn't be punsihed too much.
  • Although Britain want Germany to be punished but Lloyd George doesen't but he is pressured into it.
  • Wants Germany to have no navy. 
  • Wants Germany to pay some reparations but not too much as they want to restart trade with them like they had before the war. 
  • DID NOT want France to get the Saar land. 
  • Thought that the UK should get ALL of Germany's colonies. 
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Woodrow Wilson's Aims

  • Don't want to punish Germany or Guilt Clause as it would anger many American-German's at home. 
  • Want disarmament of all countries although understood that Germany may need a small army and really wanted to limit Britain's Navy. 
  • Doesn't want Germany to have reparations as think this will destroy their economy. 
  • Self determination
  • Alsace-Lorraine should be French
  • Saar land should be German. 
  • League of Nations
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Why was Clemenceau so harsh?

  • France was the hardest hit country. 
  • 1.7 million dead
  • Economy destroyed. 
  • Areas of Western France was destroyed. 
  • Already been invaded twice 
  • Owe America a lot of money and therfore needed reperations from Germany. 
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Why was Woodrow Wilson so lenient?

  • Hardly effected by the war. 
  • Only entered the war in late 1917. 
  • ONLY 116,000 dead from America.
  • Economy benefited from the war
  • Far away from Germany so no real threat
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Woodrow Wilson's 14 Points

1)No secret treaties 2)Free access to the seas in peacetime or wartime 

3)Free trade between countries     4)All countries to work towards disarmament 5)Colonies to have a say in their own future 

6)German troops to leave Russia 7)Independence for Belgium 

8)France to regain Alsace-Lorraine 

 9)Frontier between Austria and Italy to be adjusted  

10)Self-Determination for the peoples of eastern Europe (they should rule themselves) 

 11)Serbia to have access to the sea 12)Self-determination for the people in the Turkish Empire

13)Poland to become an independent state with access to the sea

14)League of Nations to be set up

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Problems with the 14 points

  • Clemenceau disagreed with the 14 points. 
  • He thought that Wilson was being soft because USA had not suffered. 
  • France didn't want to disarm 
  • Thought LofN would be a talking shop
  • Lloyd George disagreed with the 14 points. 
  • Disagreed over point 2, 5 and 10
  • Self determination
  • Thought that LofN would not be very effective. 
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Failure of the 14 Points

Clemeceau and Lloyd George did not like them.



WW gets LofN and self determination for Eastern Europe.

DID NOT get a fair and non vengeful TofV

Self determination for other colonies


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Treaty of Versailles

  • War Guilt Clause/Article 231
  • Germany had to pay £6,600 million in reparations.
  • Germany had to hand over about 70,000 square kilometres of land 
  • Germany had colonies taken away from them
  • Germany were not allowed more then 100,000 men and the navy only 15,000 sailors. 
  • ONLY allowed 6 battleships and not allowed to buy anymore weapons and other war material. 
  • An Allied Army was to occupy the Rhineland for 15 years and no German troups were allowed in the zone. 
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French Reaction to the Treaty


  • Harshness of the treaty
  • Reparations
  • Small German military
  • Demilitarized zone in the Rhineland 
  • Territorial gains


  • Wanted the treaty to be even harsher
  • Still a threat to France  
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British reaction to Britain


  • British public were happy
  • Gained colonies
  • Germany navy was weakened


  • Lloyd George secretly hated the Treaty
  • Self-determination of Eastern Europe
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American reaction to the Treaty


  • Self-determination of Eastern Europe
  • Treaty was not as harsh as France wanted
  • LofN was created


  • Very few of the 14 points were included in the treaty
  • Thought the Treaty was TOO harsh. 
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Why did Germans hate the TofV?

It was not a direct surrender>>many Germans thought they could have carried on fighting

Germans agreed to 14 points, but hardly included in TofV

Makes Germany defenceless 

Germans wrongly blamed for starting the war (Austrian Franz Ferdinand was killed by a Serb)

Germany were not allowed at the TofV discussions

TofV would destroy Germany


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Other Treaties

Treaty of St Germain

  • 1919
  • Dealt with Austro-Hungarian Empire

Treaty of Neuilly 

  • 1919
  • Dealt with Bulgaria

Treaty of Trianon 

  • 1919
  • Dealt with Hungary

Treaty of Sevres

  • 1919
  • Dealt with Turkey 
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Treaty of Neuilly

  • 1919, Bulgaira
  • Smallest and weakest central power
  • Didn't contribute much to war effort 
  • Land to Greece
  • Land to Romania
  • Land to Yugaslovia
  • ONLY allowed 20,000 men in their army.
  • Had to pay repartions of £100 million 
  • Failed Self determination 
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Treaty of Trianon

  • Hungary, 1919
  • Austro-Hungarian Empire=BROKEN UP
  • LAND to Romania
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Yugoslavia
  • Reparations demaned but they were never able to pay them
  • 3 million Hungarians lived outside Hungary
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Treaty of St Germain

  • Independence to Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia, Hungary.
  • And territorial losses to Italy and Romania
  • ONLY allowed 30,000 armed forces and no ships or planes allowed
  • 30 years of payment
  • ANSCHLUSS baned....NOT allowed to join with Germany. 
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Treaty of Sevres

  • Turkey, 1920
  • Lost N.Africa, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt
  • Smyrna and Northen Dardanelles went to Greece
  • Syria, Palestine, Jordon and Iraq mandates for Britain and France  
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Ideas of the League of Nations

Clemenceau - wanted league to have a strong army to back it up or it should not exist at all

Woodrow Wilson - wanted the league to be a world parliament which would guarentee peace through discussion and have no army. 

Lloyd George - A simpler organistion which would only be called in emergency 

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Woodrow Wilson's League

  • Woodrow Wilson got most of his ideas for the league of nations. 
  • AIMS
  • World Parliament which would setttle disuputes through discusison
  • Improve living and working conditions
  • World disarmament 
  • Collective security
  • Encourage trade and businesses 
  • Enforce TofV 
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USA did NOT join the LofN

WW was ill and dying by 1920

CANNOT run for re-election = Republicans win



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Membership of the league

42 countries at the beginning.....59 by 1930

USA, USSR and Germany did not join

Germany were not allowed to join as a punishment for WW1 

These absents weakened the League of Nations 

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Leadership of the League of Nations

Britaind and France left in control

France HATED the LofN

UK wasn't keen on it either 

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The Council

PERMANENT  MEMBERS = Britain, France, Italy and Japan 

TEMPORARY MEMBERS = Elected by the assembly for 3 year periods for 4-9 states.

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