International Relations

History Resit- 14th June 2011

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  • Created by: gemma
  • Created on: 05-06-11 20:39

Why did war break out???

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Wall Street Crash

- World went into economic depression after america in 1929

"America sneezes the world catches a cold"

- Trade badly hit



-Countries become self-interested

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Failure of the league- Manchurian Crisis

- Depression hit Japan hard

- Main export= silk- people couldnt afford this

- Wanted to expand Colonies

- Excuse= railway line leading to Manchuria

- Railway=sabotaged- use this as the excuse to attack Manchuckno- nickname

- China wants help- go to LON- league in a tricky position

-Britain and France cannot afford to go to battle

- LYTTON REPORT- took a year- japan was in the wrong

- Japan leaves LON and invade Jehol

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Failure of the league- Abyssinian Crisis

-Mussolini wants an empire- Abyssinia equals perfect target

-December 1934- 30 italian solidiers killed- uses this as an excuse to invade

-Britain and France unwilling to offend Mussolini- may become an ally with Germany

-THE STRESSA FRONT- agreement against germany between Br. F. and It.

-Mussolini planning attack behind LON of Abyssinia

- Haile Selassie needs help- in charge of Abyssinia- appeals to LON

- LON imposes economic sanctions and a ban on arms sales- didnt want to provoke a war

-HOARE LAVAL PACT- between Br. F. and It.- Mussolini to have 2/3 of abyssinia if he stops fighting

- 2 monthis later LON imposes ban on sale of oil to italy- to late- Mussolini already had most of Abyssinia

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Failure of the league- Results

Manchuria- LON proves to be inefective and powerless

Manchuria- LON would not act

Manchuria- Big countries were too powerful to be stopped

Manchuria- Britain and France cannot act as the big power in the LON

Abyssinia- LON thoroughly discredited

Abyssinia- Britain and Frances plan didnt work as Germany and Italy signed ROME BERLIN AXIS 1936

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Germany and the Treaty of Versailles

- Actions carried out by the TOV to Germany- Reperations (£6,600 million)- army reduced to 100,00 men- navy was cut- land taken- Rhineland demilitarised- made to take full blame for the war

-This caused- resntment- humiliation- anger- call for revenge- growth of extremist groups]

- Jan 1933 Hitler promises to- destroy the TOV- make germany great again- defeat communisim

- what he did to the TOV- made his army bigger (introduced conscription) 1933- remilitarilised Rhineland 1936- showed power of his weapons (spanish civil war 1936-38)- ANSCHULUSS with austria 1938- Sudetenland 1938- took more of Czechoslovakia- invaded poland which lead to war 

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- Britain and France started a policy to make sure there was no war

- Hitler thinks its a weakness- Britain and France would not stop him

- Sees LON as weak- he was a oppurtunist

- Union with Austria=major goal

-Schuschnigg wants to keep germans out of austria- hitler demands anschuluss- Schuschnigg calls plebiscite

- 99.75% vote for hitler- CLEARLY FIXED

-Schuschnigg resigned in protest

-RESULT- No action from Br. and Fr. AGAIN- Britain still unprepared for war- Hitler has free reign to continue his policy of LEBENSRAUM

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- 3 million german speakers

-Economically and militarily strong and has good resources- good for Hitler

-Benes refused concessions from hitler

- Chamberlain said that majority of Sudetenland could go to germany but hitler changed his mind and wanted it all

- MUNICH AGREEMENT- agrees sudetenland to go to germany and Czech borders

-Benes resigns in disgust- he was not at the meeting yet ther land was been given away

-30th September 1938 Anlo-German Decleration-'peace of our time' - Chamberlain and Hitler

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Road to war

-Hitler ordered troops into Bohemia and Moravia- shouldn’t have- they were protected by the Munich agreement

- Chamberlain knew Hitler couldn’t be trusted- appeasement was dead

- 31st March Br. and Fr. promised Poland they would protect them- wanted to help the USSR as well but Stalin did not trust them

- 23rd August 1939 Hitler and Stalin sign NAZI SOVIET PACT- promised not to fight and secretly divide Poland- Hitler now has a war on two fronts and USSR were preparing for war

- September 1st 1939 Germany invades Poland- Hitler doesn’t think Br. and Fr. will react- they do    - September 17th USSR invades Poland

- September 3rd war is declared

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How did the Cold War Develop?

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What was the cold war?

-After WW2

-America and Russia very suspicious of each other

-War break out between them????

-Arms race- kept building up their supply of weapons

-Alliances with other countries to be spies

-Propaganda to persuade their citizens that the others were a threat- taxes were needed to be spent on arms

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When did the cold war begin?

-Grand Alliance between Britain, France, America and Russia

- Formed to defeat Hitler

-Towards end of the war would meet to decide what would happen to Hitler once defeated

-Three conferences

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Tehran Conference (1943)

-Big three- Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin

- Agreed Russia to have own Sphere of Influence in Europe

-Couldn’t agree to what would happen to Germany after the war

-Stalin- Germany to pay reparations and give up land

-Churchill and Roosevelt- Germany allowed to recover

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Yalta Conference (1945)

-Big three agreed after the war

              -Communist government in Poland              -UN to be set up        -Democracy in Europe

-couldn’t agree as to what democracy was

-Roosevelt and Stalin=happy

- Roosevelt dies 2 months after this and is replace with Truman- Truman does not get on well with Stalin

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Potsdam Conference (1945)

-Big three agreed  -ban the Nazis and to put any surviving on trial        -reduce the size of Germany              -Germany to be divided into 4 zones between Rus. Fr. Am. Br.

-Americans were secretly testing the atomic bomb

-Truman arrogant at the conference because of this???

-Grand alliance= beginning to crumble

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Why did the cold war begin:Fear of war

-Europe becoming divided- Communism in the east- Capitalism in the west

-Churchill- IRON CURTAIN splitting Europe

-America and Russia using spies to see what was happening- reported back in telegrams

-THE LONG TELEGRAM- Stalin building weapons and calling for destruction of Capitalism

-NOVIKOVS TELEGRAM- America was getting ready for war with Russia

-Suspicion on both sides

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Truman Doctrine (1947)

- Truman said the spread opf communisim must stop- CONTAINMENT

- Would send money and troops to any government that felt threatened by Communisim

-America to be the "police men of the world" not the UN

- Could the division become even more rigid??

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Marshall Plan (1947)

- America would help countries who were under the threat of communisim

-would use force or give money to countries

-promised to help countries to recover from the war

- Countires had to trade with America

-16 countries accepted including Br. and Fr.

- Those in Russias sphere of influence declined

-Split between east and west= growing

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Satellite states: what?

- independent countries

- Czechoslovakia

- Hungary


- In russias sphere of influence

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Satellite states: why??

- America was "buying" the west

-Stalin wanted to extend his control in the east

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What was Cominform: the communist information bure

-Brought the communist party together in Europe

-Encouraged to reject Marshall aid and go on strike IF NECCESARY

-Used to spy on people- those in governement especially- EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

-Those who were not "loyal" to Stalin were put in prison

- Helped to stamp out any opposition to europe in Eastern Europe

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- Stalins answer to Marshall Aid

- Economic development in eastern europe

-Stop trade with West Europe and America

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The "two camps"

- Potsdam conference- Europe divided intoo two camps



- Division= GROWING

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Why did the allies agree after WW2

- What should happen to Germany after the war????


     - BR. FR. set up new gov. in WEST GERMANY with new money DEUTSCHMARK

- Stalin= not happy- America was to involved in Germany especially in the west (richest part)

- worried that americans would use this as a base to attack russia

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Berlin Blockade (1948-49)

- Stalin set it up around west Berlin

-Aim was to try and stop the formation of a seperate state in west Germany


   - Br. and Am. flew supplies and food into Berlin


-1949- seperate states formed- WEST GERMANY and EAST GERMANY

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- Alliance between America and other western european countries

- Agreed to defend any members if attacked

- Intended as defence against Russia


- MARSHALL PLAN- alliance based on traiding

- NATO- military alliance- brought war closer

- Russias response= WARSAW PACT- military alliance between Russia and Eastern European Countries

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Arms Race

- America and Russia building up their armies, navies and air forces

- USA developed ATOMIC BOMB- 4 years later russia did

-USA developed a HYDROGEN BOMB- russia caught up and developed one


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Hungary under Stalin


- 1949 COMINFORM imposed opreesive (removal of freedoms) gov. on Hun.

- Raw materials and food sent to Russia

- Only political party allowed= COMMUNISIM

- Russia controlled them

- Protestors= arrested

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Matayas Rakosi

- Russians appointed him dictator of Hungary


-"SALAMI TACTICS"- dealt with opposition

- got rid of opponents "SLICE BY SLICE"

- 387,000 people in PRISON

- 2,000 people EXECUTED

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- Dies in 1953

- 20 million people killed to ensure opposition to Russia and communsim didnt succeed

-NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV- next Russian leader

- SECRET SPEECH to move away from Stalins way of ruling

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Nagys programme of reforms (the hungarian uprising

- SECRET SPEECH leaked out

- Riots in Hungary and Russian troops= attacked

- Hungarians wanted to be from Russians rule

- KHRUSHCHEV appoint new leader to bring in reforms- IMRE NAGY

- NAGY- Hungary to leave the warsaw pact and be neutral- alliance with russia to end

- KHRUSHCHEV thinks this too far- would other countries follow what he was doing??

-Sent troops into Hungary- 2 weeks of fighting- Nagys government= crushed

- Nagy- arrested and hung- replaced with JANOS KADAR-helped to re-establish russian control

- America offered money to help NAGY but not military support

-Eisenhower- scared of a NUCLEAR WAR

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Three Cold war crises: Berlin, Cuba and Czechoslovakia

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The Berlin Crisis: refugee crisis

- east germany wants to move to west germany- better q of l.


- looked bad for Russia- made communisim seem unpopoular

-KHRUSHCHEV tries to solve this problem by saying all of Berlin is East germany's

- gives Americans 6 MONTHS to GET OUT

-four meeting held to try and sort this out without goin to war




   - 1961- GENEVA KHRUSCHEV tells KENNEDY to get out or WAR

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Berlin crisis: Kennedy prepares for war

- Refuses to pull troops out of berlin

- starts to build up forces and built nuclear fallout sheltersin American cities

- America has 20x more nuclear weapons than Russia

- there weapons could reach Russia- Russians could not reach america

-Khrushchev needs a better plan

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Berlin crisis: the berlin wall

- 12th August 1961- barbed wire fence around Berlin

- Later becomes a wall


-Stopped east germans escaping to the west

- Khrushchev able to stand up to america without a war

- Symbol of the division of the East and the West

-Kennedy unable to stop the wall being built

-1963 visits west berlin to show his support for berliners

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Cuban Misile crisis: arms race

- America has 20x more nuclear bombs than russia

- B52 BOMBERS- could drop bombs on Russia

- Russians developing space technology- first man made satellite- SPUTNIK 1

- Americans worried- could this be used to attack the USA???

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Cuban Misile crisis: cuban revolution

- Cuba- 90 miles aways from america

- Revolution led by FIDEL CASTRO 1959

-Did not want to have so much american influence in Cuba

- Bought american property

-America's response- ban the import of cuban sugar- BAD this was cubas main export

- CASTRO goes to KHRUSHCHEV for help

- Russia gives them economic aid

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Cuban Misile crisis: bay of pigs incident

- JFK tries to overthrow Cubas gov.

- America trains some cuban exiles who launched an INVASION in 1961 at the BAY OF PIGS

- Cubans resisted- the invasion attempt failed

- CASTRO fears another invasion- KHRUSHCHEV to help

- NUCLEAR MISSILES on CUBA- would stop america from invading

- RUSSIA can now drop bombs on AMERICA!!!

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Cuban Misile crisis: thirteen days

- SEPTEMBER 1962- KHRUSHCHEV "secretly" places missiles on Cuban soil

- OCTOBER 1962- America finds out what is goin on

- next 13 days- "world held its breath"

- on the brink of WW3

- after 13 days they come to a deal

- Russia would remove its missiles to america if america promised not to invade cuba and move their missiles from turkey

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Cuban Misile crisis: Consequences

1/. Kruschev seemed to have given in to Kennedy- lost some authority

2/. Direct hotline set up between America and Russia to make communication easier

3/. Both agreed to limit their testing of nuclear weapons

4/. Both agreed to cooperate in the future- "detente"

5/. Russia caught up with America in nmbers of nuclear weapons

6/. France left NATO and develops their own nuclear weapons- do not want to be caught up in the war between Russia and America

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Czechoslovakia- Prauge Spring: Liberalisation

- Cz. was a Russian satellite state

- Economy in a bad shape

- Ciriticism of gov. dealt with severley

- 1968 Alexamder Dubeck becomes leader- communist- personal friend of BREZHNEV

- wanted to give Czech people more freedom

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Czechoslovakia- Prauge Spring:Events

- introduced

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Czechoslovakia- Prauge Spring: Brezhnev Doctrine

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Czechoslovakia- Prauge Spring: International React

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furuba fan

really useful notes but the last three slides don't have any writing on them!

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