International Relations 1900-1914

Development of the Armed Camps - TA

Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy

Germany and Austria-Hungary - 1879

Germany and Italy - 1882

Italy and Austria-Hungary - 1882

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Development of the Armed Camps - TE

Triple Entente - Britain, France and Russia

Russia and France - 1894

Britain and France - 1904

Britain and Russia - 1907

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Development of the Armed Camps - Important Dates

Franco-Prussian War - 1870-71

1898 - Germany began to develop her army

1899-1902 - The Boers in South Africa rebelled against Britain

1903-1904 - The Entente Cordiale (B+F) signed

1905-1906 - The Moroccan Crisis

1906 - The Naval and Arms Race

1908-1909 - The Bosnian Crisis

1911 - The Second Moroccan Crisis

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Naval and Arms Ra

1906 - Britain launched the first of a new type of battleship - Dreadnought

Dreadnought - funf minuten

1914 -  Britain  Germany

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Tension in the Balkans

Serbia enlarged after victory in the 1912-1913 Balkan Wars

Serbia dreamed of a Greater Serbia

Austria was concerned about Serbia

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Black Hand Gang

1911 - 10 men formed the Black Hand Movement in Serbia

'To realise the nationalt ideal, the unification of all Serbs'

1914 - 2500 members (including officials in the Serbian army)

Plan of the Movement

What - assassinate the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Franz Ferdinand

Where - Sarajevo, Bosnia

When - 28th June 1914

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The Assassination of Franz Ferdiand

Where: Sarajevo, Bosnia

When: 28th June 1914

Who: Nedeljko Cabrinovic, Gavrilo Princip and others

The Serbian Prime Minister, Nikola Pasic, was aware of the danger and advised the Archduke to abandon the trip

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The Assassination of Franz Ferdinand - Events

  • Nedeljko Cabrinovic and Gavirlo Princip were members of the Black Hand Movement
  • Cabrinovic's grenade was thrown at the Archduke's car but it deflected off of Franz Ferdinands arm and instead injured 20 people who had come to see the Archduke
  • After the meeting at the Town Hall, the Archduke decided to take a different route back and see the 20 people in hospital after being injured by the grenade. The driver was not informed.
  • Gavrilo Princip was just leaving a sandwich shop when the car took a wrong turn and halted near to him
  • Princip fired two shots; one landing in the Archdukes neck, one in his wife, Sophia's, stomach, killing both her and their unborn child
  • The assassins were put on trial and two were executed. Princip was only 19 and too young for the death penalty, so he was imprisoned for 20 years. He died in prison in 1918
  • After this an ultimatum was sent to Serbia by Austria with 10 points. Serbia agreed with all but point 6 which involved the Serbian justice system (a threat to Serbian independence)
  • Austria-Hungary refused to take part in negotiations and declared war on Serbia on 28th July 1914
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Black Hand Movement Members and sentences

Gavrilo Princip - 20yr Veljko Cubrilovic - H Cvijan Stjepanovic - 7yr

Nedeljko Cabrinovic - 20yr Nedjo Kerovic - H Branko Zagorac - 3yr

Trifun Grabez - 20yr Mihaijlo Jovanovic - H

Vaso Cubrilovic - 16yr Jakov Milovic - H

Cvjetko Popovic - 13yr Mitar Kerovic - L H = hanged

Lazar Dukic - 10yr Ivo Kranjcevic - 10yr L = life in prison

Danilo Ilic - H Marko Perin - 3yr

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The Great Powers 1

Europe 1870 - 4 Great Empires

  • Russian
  • Austrian
  • Ottoman
  • British

Europe 1900

  • Austrian-Hungary
  • Ottoman (decreases)

Prussian - German 1880

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The Great Powers 2

5 Great Empires

  • Russian
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Ottoman
  • British
  • Prussian
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The Schlieffen Plan

The German Schlieffen Plan ensured the spread of war to the west.

How the plan worked

  • The plan would move the war westwards into France first
  • France would expect Germany to go through Alsace-Lorraine (the east) but the Schlieffen Plan was different
  • The Schlieffen Plan meant they went through neutral Belgium (the north)
  • It was expected that it would take six weeks for France to surrender
  • After French surrender they would move eastwards and fight Russia. (Russia was a large country and it would take about six weeks for their army to mobiblise)

'Lunch in Paris, Dinner in St. Petersburg' - Kaiser Wilhelm II

Because Belgium was neutral (Treaty of London 1839), Britain declared war on Germany on 4th August. This was to defend the sanctity of the treaties ('a scrap of paper' - Kaiser Wilhelm II)

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Responsibility for the Outbreak of War

Britain was the most responsible for the outbreak of war because it tried to encircle Germany, was involved in several incidents before 1914 which contributed to European tension and did not make it clear to Germany that they would got ot war over Belgian neutrality

France was the most responsible because of its involvement in incidents before 1914 and its desire for revenge against Germany after the loss of Alsace-lorraine in 1871

Germany was the mst responsible because of its aggressive policies, the unconditional support it offered to Austria-Hungary and the Schlieffen Plan

Austria-Hungary was the most responsible because of its refusal to negotiate with Serbia

Russia was the most responsible because it mobilised in defence of Serbia

Serbia was the most responsible because ot the assassination of Franz Ferdinand by a Serbian nationalist group

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Timeline Events 1914

23rd July - Austro-Hungarian ultimatum to Serbia

24th July - Russia offers support to Serbia

28th July - Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia

30th July - Russia begins to mobilise its forces

1st August - Germany declares war on Russia

3rd August - Germany declares war on France; German troops enter Belgium

4th August - Germany declares war on Belgium; Britain declares war on Germany

5th August - France declares war on Germany

6th August - Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia

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