Treaty Of Versailles
- 28th june 1919 the German delegates were summoned to Versailles where they signed the treaty.
- set up league of nations
- 100,000 men in army no conscription
- not allowed tanks, submarines or military aircrafts.
- only 6 battleships
- demilitarisation of the rhineland.
- 6.6 billion reparations to be payed over 42 years.
- war guilt clause.
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The Big Three
- George Clemenceau of France wanted revenge, to make germany pay for the cost of war and to ensure that Germany would never be able to attack france again.
- Woodrow Wilson of the USA wanted to prevent Germany from becoming aggressive again, to punish Germany for her aggression but avoid forcing her to pay very heavy damages and to base the treaty on the fourteen points.
- Llyod George of Great Britain wanted to preserve the supremacy of the british Navy but not punish Germany to harshly so they dont turn to communism.
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League Of Nations.
- The aim was to join together to prevent war.
- The USA did not join which weakened it.
- It was to be a way of solving disputes between countries.
- each member nation was represented on the assembly which met once a year to discuss general topics e.g. revision of treaties. All decisions were to be unanimous.
- The council was the foour big countries: Italy, Japan, France and Britain. the council's main duty was to solve any disputes that may ocur between states. Moral Condemnation, economic sanctions and military force.
- Court of justice was 15 judges chosen from nations of the league, it dealt with disputes between countries over international war but had no means of forcing them to do anything.
- A wide range of agencies and commisions were formed to deal with problems e.g Lytton Commission in Manchuria.
- The Secretariat looked after day to day business of the league.
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1930's sucesses and failure and Disarmament
- 1929 wall street crash caused depression for people all around the world.
- the hardest hit was Germany as they were linked with America.
- japan didnt have space for their continuously growing population.
- It was hoped that the League of Nations would offer security to all countries there wouldnt be a need to maintain vast armies
- France stilf felt insecure that Germany were going to attack again. Attempts were made to tighten the rules of the league so France felt secure enough.
- Britain was worried about the reductions in the navy, they were also afraid that the league of Nations would use the navy as a unit of policing the seas.
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- Invaded because hit hard by depression and her industrial strength depended on exports.
- 1931 18 september there was an explosion on the south Manchurian railway; japanese claimed this was an act of sabotage by the chinese.
- China appealed to the league of nations and they condemned Japan and asked them to give back China but the Japanese refused.
- The Lytton commission was set up but tool over a year to report back but this took over a year to report back.
- Japan later renamed Manchuria Manchukuo.
- Japan later left the league but still went on to occupy a chinese province Jehol.
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- Italy took it because they had tried to take it in 1896 but failed
- December 1934 a clash occured between italy and abyssinia at wal walon the border between them.
- The league offered to arbituate or act as judge but Italy refused it.
- they sanctioned Italy but not on coal oil or steel and also Germany and the USA still traded with Italy.
- Britain didnt close the suez canal which lead Italy straight to Abyssinia; becasue they didnt want to lose trade with Mussolini.
- the Hoare Laval pact which was discussed that Mussolini could have half of Abyssinia if he stopped the agression but this was leaked to the press.
- in june haile selassie made a public appearance but the war was over and Mussolini claimed victory.
- Italy then left the league in May 1936 and sanctions were withdrawn in july.
- The Abyssinian crisis marked the end of the league and the means of keeping peace.
- in 1936 Mussolini signed the Rome Berlin Axis with Hitler which ended hopes for Britain and France to be Allies with Germany.
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- while in Prison he wrote Mein Kampf which highlited his views and aims.
- To make Germany into a great power again.
- To unite all German speaking people under his rule.
- To gain territory for Germany in the east to provide lebensraum for the German people.
- Hitler wanted to change the territorial settlements of the treaty of Versailles by regainig lands taken from Germany including the saar and Danzig.
- Bring the 7million German speaking people in Austria and the 4million in Czechoslovakia and poland into his empire.
- to build up the German army so he could do so by force if necessary and prove Germany was a great power.
- Expand in the east mostly against communist USSR.
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Hitlers Foreign Policy
- Germany began to rearm, introducing conscription in 1935. Hitlers excuse was that France had increased conscription from 12 to 18 months.
- The rearmament is against the treaty of Versailles but Britain and France did not act as Britain felt sorry for Germany and France didnt want them to strengthen in any way.
- Hitler took advantage of these diferences to further his aims in foreign policy.
- 1934 Hitler signed a ten year non agression pact with Poland which guaranteed the boundaries of Poland.
- Later in 1934 Hitler suffered a setback to his aims he failed the reunification of Germany and Austria (anschluss).
- Hitler signed the Anglo-german Naval agreement in 1935 which meant he could have as many submarines as he wished and limited their navy to 35% of Briatins.
- January 1935 a plebiscite was held in the saar deciding whether the saar should be a part of Germany they voted to join Hitler.
- 7th March 1936 German soldiers marched into the Rhineland; this was against the TofV and the locarno pact. no sanctions because Britain believed them to simply be taking back what they owned.
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- It is the name often given to the Britsh Policy in the years 1919 to 1939 but it is particularly associated with Neville Chamberlain who became Prime minister in 1937.
- Chamberlain believed in taking an active role in solving Hitlers Grievances.
- he felt Germany had good reason to be upset by many of the terms of the TofV.
- the risks were that it depended on Hitler aims being reasonable and limited to righting the wrongs of the TofV , it meant trusting Hitler and believing he was telling the truth.
- people in Britain wanted to avoid war at all costs.
- Economically Briatin couldnt was suffering from depression and could not afford any rearmament.
- Many people in Britain feared Communist USSR more than Hitlers Fascism.
- the sudetenland crisism was where Hitler tried to take all German speaking parts ie Czech, Chamberlain forced benes to accept the deal.
- hitler didnt expect this so then asked for the immediate occupation of the sudetenland without a plebiscite.
- At Munich on 30th september it was agreed the sudetenland would become German. but Britain and France guaranteed the remaining part of Czechoslovakia.
- Chamberlain then met Hitler privately and Hitler agreed declaration that they would never go to war again and consultation would solve all future disagreements.
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