- Created by: Mpow01
- Created on: 05-02-19 20:41
Howard Becker - 60 Chicago teachers, he found they judged pupils depending on how closely they fitted ideal student
Hempel Jorgensen - Aspen primary school, largely working class, staff said discipline was a major problem, the ideal pupil was defined as quiet and obedient. Rowan Primary school had very few discipline problems, it was mainly middle class, and here the ideal pupil was defined in terms of personality and academic ability rather than being a non misbehaving pupil.
Labelling in Secondary schools
Dunne and Gazeley - Teachers normalised the underachievement of working-class pupils, they felt they were a lost cause so they didn't bother encouraging them to learn.
This was because they labelled the working class as uninterested and unmotivated in educational achievement whereas they would set middle-class extension work
Labelling in Primary Schools
Ray Rist - Teacher who decided were fast learners labelled them tigers and seated them near the teacher to show support and encouragement
The other two groups were cardinals and clowns which she would seat further away. They were given lower level books and were ignored.
Self fulfilling Prophecy
A prediction that comes true simply by the virtue of it being made
Rosenthal and Jacobson - They told the school that they had an IQ test. The teachers believed what they had been told. Random pupils were selected as spurters. Teachers treated these pupils better as they accepted label attached to the score and felt they were most likely to succeed
Separating children into different abilities
Working class pupils are placed in lower streams and get the message that they have no chance of success therefore SFP.
Streaming and the A - C economy
Gillbourn and Youdell - teachers are less likely to see working-class, black people as having the ability so they are placed in lower streams.
To achieve good league table positions school needs to get as many students with 5 A*-C grades as possible.
So teachers focus on the C/D students to give them extra help to improve league table position
Sorting students between
those who will pass anyway
Those who achieve C/D grade (targeted for extra help)
Hopeless cases (lowest stream working class pupils) teachers don't bother with these
Lacey's definition of differentiation and polarisation explain how subcultures develop.
Differentiation - Those who are deemed more able are given higher status and those who are less able are given low status
Polarisation - How pupils respond to streaming by moving one of two opposite extremes e.g. pro-school or anti-school subculture
Pro School Subculture
Pupils placed in high streams who are committed to schools values
Anti School Subcultures
Those placed in low streams and schools undermine their self worth placing them in a position of inferior status
The label of failure encourages them to pursue other ways of status gain this involves rebellion of schools values.
These casues pupils within this subculture to remain failing at education as their attitudes change
Ball - WHen streaming was abolished, subcultures were largely removed and anti-school subculture was removed.
But differentiation continued and teachers still labelled students according to their social class
Pupil Responses to labelling
Labelling and streaming
Ingratiation - Being the teacher's pet
Ritualism - Going through motions to stay out of trouble
Retreatism - Daydreaming and mucking about
Rebellion - outright rejection of everything the school stands for
Criticisms of labelling
It is deterministic, pupils do not have to accept the label and fulfil it
Marxists say it ignores powers of wider structures and say it doesn't explain why teachers label
Refers to the taken for granted ways of thinking and acting within a social class.
It includes tastes, preferences, outlook on life
The middle class have the power to impose their habitus as superior and enforce it in the education system as a result middle class thrive in schools
Symbolic capital and symbolic violence Archer
By defining working class' lifestyles as inferior it causes 'symbolic violence' and keeps working class in their place
This results in a clash between the middle class and working class and working class feel alienated
Archer said working class would have to lose themselves to be educationally successful i.e. talk posh
Nike Identities Archer
Wearing the right appearance earnt symbolic capital and approval from peer groups.
However, it led to conflict in schools dress code as Nike was not middle-class clothing.
Archer argues the school's middle-class habitus stigmatises working class pupils identities. Seen from the school's point of view as failures but to young people, it gives them self worth and recognition
Nike identities play a part in pupils rejection of higher education as they see it as unrealistic (not for people like us but for the rich and posh.) It is also undesirable because it does not suit their preferred habitus e.g. Student loan means they can't afford street style
Working class identity and educational success
Ingram - Two groups of Catholic boys one clever one not clever from the same deprived neighbourhood
Clever went to grammar school the others went to local secondary school
Working class communities required people to fit into their habitus' which was now challenging for the grammar school clever boys.
In the end the clever boys ditched their working-class habitus' and joined middle class because they were seen as worthless by the school and their peers
Class Identity and Self-exclusion
Evans - a group of girls from south London reluctant to apply for Oxbridge because they knew they wouldn't fit in
She also found that girls had a strong attachment to locality which narrowed the options of working-class pupils to not elite universities
Relationship between Internal and External factors
The restricted code causes pupils to be labelled and SFP
Poverty leads to bullying and stigmatisation