Labelling and teacher racism
interactionist, labels teachers give to children from different ethnic backgrounds. Teachers see black and Asian puipls far from being 'ideal pupil'. Black pupils often seen as disruptive and Asains as passive. NEGATIVE LABELS Teachers treat ethnic minority groups different =disadvanges them =failure
Gillborn and Youdell -saw teachers were quicker to discipline black pupils. Result of teacher's 'racialised expectations'. Expected black pupils to present more discipline problems and misinterpreted their behaviour as threatening. teachers would act upon this and students would respond negatively = conflict, this stems from radical stereotypes teachers hold in their behaviour. Black students feel picked on and underestimated
higher level of exclusions of balck boys = seen as a threat=labelled negatively=exclusion (interal exclusion'
Black pupils and streaming=Gillborn and Youdell 'educational triage' effect of negative stereotypes
Asian pupils=labelling teachers hold ethnocentric views affected how teachers related to them assume would have poor english, left out of discussions and spoken childish =isolated teachers expressed disapproval of customs and msipronounced their names- saw them as a probelm they could ignore = marginalised them
Pupil responses and subculture and pupil identitie
RESOUCES AND SUBCULTURE - racsim and neagtive labelling can be responded to in a variety of differnt ways eg become disruptive and withdrawn, accept it or decide to prove it wrong does not automatically= self fulfilling prophecies
- Fuller = rejecting and challenging negative labels
- Miza = failed straegies for avoiding racism
- Sewell = variety of responses rebel/ conformists/ retreatists/ innovators
IDENTITIES-steretypical ethnic identities, teachers define ethnic minority pupils identites as lacking the favoured identitiy of 'ideal pupil', Archer- seen as demonised or pathologised pupils
Chinese students- pathologised, viewed negatively, achieved success in the wrong way through hardwork, passive and coformist rather than natural individual ability, not 'IDEAL PUPIL'. success of ethnic minority groups= 'over achievement' 'proper achievement is natural the ideal pupil
Internal factors institutional racism
Beyond just individual racism -how school rountinely and unconciously discriminate against ethnic minority groups
- individual racism- prejudiced views of the individual eg teachers
- insitutional racism- discrimination that is bulit into the way insitutions such as school operate
Critical race theory - racism is a ingrained feature of society, inolves not just intensional sctions of individuals but also insitutional racism
insitutional racism is a 'Locked-in inequality'- scale of historical discrimination is so large there is no longer need to any conscious intent. Ethnic inequality is so "deep rooted and so large that it is an inevitable feature of the education system"- Gillborn
Marketisation and segregation
marketisation gives schools opp to select pupils- negative stereotypes can influence decisions about school admission
selection procedures=ethnic segregation with minority groups failing to get into better schools= discrimination. Procedures favoured white pupils and disadvanged those from ethnic minority backgrounds = ethnically straatified education system
The commission for radical equality (1993)- racsim in school admissions procedures= minority gropus end up in unpopular schools becsuse . . .
- reports stereotype minority pupils
- lack of information and application forms in minority languages
- minority parents unaware on how system works
'Ethnocentric' describes an attitude or policy that gives priority to the culture and viewpoint of one particular ethnic group while disreguarding others
'Ethnocentric curriculum' is one that reflects the culture of one ethnic group- most dominate. Sociologists thing this is an example of institutional racism because it builds a radical bias into everyday life
Examples - Languages, literature, music
- History - ignores history of black and Asian people
Coard = ethnocentric curriculm produces underachievement eg British presented as bringing civilisation to people they colonised. This gives an image that black people are inferior undermines self esteem = failure
Evaluation- not clear on the impact of EC. It ignores Asian culture, Indian and chinese pupils achievement is above national average - black children don't suffer from low self esteem
Assessment, opportunities and 'new IQism'
Assessment-Gillborn 'the assessment game' is rigged so dominate cultures superior, if black succeed 'the rules will be changed to re engineer faliure'. Eg. primary school baseline assessment tested pupils at start of primary replaced by foundation stage profile. Black pupils now appeared to be doing worse because . . .
- FSP based on teachers judgements, baseline was often used hand written tests-
- stereotyping change in time
Opportunities-Gifted and talented programme- created to meet the needs of more able, appear to benefit bright minority groups, whites are x2 likely as black caribbeans 5x as blcak african. Exam teirs- black more likely than whites to be entered for lower tier GCSE, placed in lower serts
'new IQism'-opportunities depend on teachers assessment of pupil ability, works against black pupils. Teachers place students in sets on attainment, disciplinary concerns, attitudes. Gillborn calls the new IQism where teachers and policy makers make false assumptions about the nature of pupils 'ability' 'potential'. They see potential as fixed quality, can be measured and once measured put into the 'right' set or stream. No genuine measure of 'potential'- a test only tells us what a person has learnt already or can do now not what they can do in the future.
Gillborn concludes that the education system is insitutionally racist creating an environment in which minority pupils rountinely disadvantage from analysis of assessment and opportunities
CRITICISMS OF GILLBORN -ethnic differences on achievement are a result of insitutional racism. Two Issues . . .
- Black boys underachievement- Sewell reject view believes racism has not disapperaed but not powerful enough, need to focus on external factors
- Model minorities: Indian and Chinese achievement- 'overachievement' by 'model minorities'= two groups do so well, how then there be insitutional racism in education.
Gillborn responds- argues the image of chineses and indian handworking 'model minorities' performs and ideological function and conceals that the educarion system is insitutionally racist
- makes the system appear fair and meritocratic
- justifies failure of other minorities
- 'model minorties' still suffer from racism