Every organism has certain features of characterisitics that allow it to live successfully in its habitat.
Organisms wihtin a community compete with eachother for limited resources, including water and space. Plants aslo compete with each other for light and minerals.
- Ecosystem- A community and its habitat.
- Enviroment- All the conditions that surround a living organism
- Habitat- The place where an organism lives
- Population- All the members of a single species that live in a habitat
- Community- All the populations of different organisms that live together in a habitat
Organisms live in different habitats and need different adaptations. Animals and plants have specific features that adapt them to their enviroment e.g. spines, poisons and warning colours that deter predators.
Some harmless species may even resemble a poisonous or dangerous species to increase their chances of survival
Habitats have limited amounts of the resources needed by living organisms and organisms can only survive if they can get enough of these resources.
So they must compete for resources with other organisms. If they are unsuccessful and cannot move to another habitat, they will die.
- (They do not need to fight compete for food as they create their own using photosynthsis)
The arctic is cold and windy with very little rainfall.
- Plants in the arctic often grow very close to the ground and have small leaves.
- This helps to conserve water and avoid damage by the wind.
Polar Bears are well adapted for survival in the arctic:
- A white appearance as camouflage from prey on the snow and ice
- Thick layers of fat and fur for insulation against the cold
- A small surface area to volume ratio, to minimise heat loss
- A greasy coat that sheds water after swimming
- Large furry feet to distribute their load and increase grip on the ice
Camals live in deserts that are hot and dry during the day but cold at night.
- Large flat feed to spread their weight on the sand
- Thick fur on top of the body for shade and thin fur elsewhere to allow easy heat loss
- A large surface-area-to-volume ratio to maximise heat loss
- The ability to go for a long time without water- they dont store water int heir humps, but they lose very little water through urination and perspiration
- The ability to tolerate body temperatures up to 42 degrees
- Slit-like nostrils and two rows of eyelashes to help keep out sand
Cacti are well adapted for survival in the desert
- Stems that can store water
- Widespread root systems that can collect water from a large area