Learning occuring by the observation and immitation of others. Can be used to assist group interaction.
Imitation, Enhancement, Emulation, Tutoring.
Whiten- examined Chimpanzees ability to use twigs and grass as tools to obtain food. Differences in chimp population were found between how tools were used and foodstuffs obtained. Suggests population specific behaviours are learned by one induvidual imitating the behaviour of another.
-Examples of tutoring are rare and disputed. E.g orca whales. -Subjective interpretation, inter-rater reliability may not be established, creating difficulties in understanding how behaviours arise.
The ability to identify one's own self-image, suggesting the possesion of a self concept. Self awarness indicates possesion of a self concept necessary for high level cognitive functioning.
Gallup- used the mirror test on chimps, found after prolonged exposure to their reflected images in the mirror they showed evidene of being able to recognise own refelctions.
Marten- adopted mirror test for dolphins, using self view televisions, found dolphins engage in twisting manouvres that bring painted dot into view, implying dolphins have self recognition.
-Mirror test may not be a valid measure of self recognition as autistic children pass the test, despire haveing severely impaired self awareness. -Usually use small samples in uncontrolled environments. Subjects have close contact with humans who may unintentionally influence animals behaviour.
The ability to serve one's own interests by manipulation or cooperation with others which does not upset the social cohesion of the group. Ability to solve problems associated with social living as main constituent for intelligence.
Kummer- found female baboons could successfully threaten rivals by sitting in front of the harem male, so any threat against her is seen as directed at him.
Whiten- showed how young baboons act dishonestly by screaming to get thier mothers to chase away adults from foodstuffs so they may eat them.
-Seems to exist in primates, especially those in large social groups with high social complexity. -Some examples, such as Whiten, might be conditional responses occuring through expericence via reinforcement which are exhibited in similar circumstances.
Learning occuring through associaton of a neutral stimulus with an involuntary unconditioned stimulus. One trial learning is where one pairing of a CS with an UCS is enough to produce a CR.
Seligman- biological prepardness, some associations are learned more readily as an animal is biologically predisposed to do so.
Garcia-paired sweet tasting liquid (attractive to rats) with an injection (made rats ill). Rats learned to associate liqid with being ill and stopped drinking it, because they were biologically predisposed to do so, as a natural adaptive behaviour. Kept drinking when paired with electric shocks, not develeped taste aversion.
-Animals often learn responses in response to thier environment so CC cannot fully explain how animals learn. - Behaviourism cannot explain latent learning, where learning takes place without reinforcment (Tolman- rats learned to navigate a maze without reward.)
Learning occuring via reinforcement of behaviour, thus increasing the chances of behaviour occuring again. Trial and error learning-shape behaviour by reward and punishment process.Easier to learn behaviours similar to innate ones.
Breland and Breland- instinctive drift, pigs given wood tokens to put in piggy bank to earn reinforcment, used them to root around in the ground, more natural behaviour for pigs. Supports idea that it's easier for animals to learn behaviours similar to innate ones.
-Behaviourism-cannot account for innate influences like instinctive drift and bioloical prepardness. -Animals also use social learning, via observation and immitation to learn about environent. -OC can explain new bahiours as learned by their consequences.