Intellectual development across the life stages

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  • Created by: ClsxxDV
  • Created on: 14-02-20 10:29

Infancy (0-2 years)

  • A time of rapid intellectual development
  • At birth they respond to the world through their senses and communication mainly through sound
  • At 3 months they can rember routines. Eg hear the bath being prepared and get excited
  • At 9-12 months there memory develops. E.g infants will watch and learn and rember how things work
  • Egocentric - Can only see the world from their point of view
  • Between 12 months and 3 years they develop an increasing awarness of their world and starts to explore the environment with purpose. Also become aware of themselves.

Language development:

  • Phonation stage - birth - 2 months, vowels, recognises voices
  • Goo stage - 2-3 months, cooing and gooing
  • Expansion stage - 4-6 months, laugh, vocalise excitement, communication becomes a game
  • Cononical stage - 7-10 months, fake cough, non verbal communication (waving)
  • Variegated babling stage - final stage in language
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Infancy (0-2 years)

  • A time of rapid intellectual development
  • At birth they respond to the world through their senses and communication mainly through sound
  • At 3 months they can rember routines. Eg hear the bath being prepared and get excited
  • At 9-12 months there memory develops. E.g infants will watch and learn and rember how things work
  • Egocentric - Can only see the world from their point of view
  • Between 12 months and 3 years they develop an increasing awarness of their world and starts to explore the environment with purpose. Also become aware of themselves.

Language development:

  • Phonation stage - birth - 2 months, vowels, recognises voices
  • Goo stage - 2-3 months, cooing and gooing
  • Expansion stage - 4-6 months, laugh, vocalise excitement, communication becomes a game
  • Cononical stage - 7-10 months, fake cough, non verbal communication (waving)
  • Variegated babling stage - final stage in language
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Infancy (0-2 years) - continued

Pre-linguistic development:

  • Infants communicate their feelings by crying or cooing
  • 6-12 months - babbles and copies sounds made by an adult

Linguistic develoment:

  • Understand about 20 words and will point to things when asked
  • By 18 months will be able to use around 15 words
  • By 2 years can use around 50 words
  • By 2.5 years use around 200 words and can begin to put words together to make simple requests. E.g "me teddy"

How can language skills be developed:

  • Reading books
  • socialising
  • Interaction with others
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Early childhood (3-8 years)

  • By the end of early childhood children have progressed greatly in their intellectual development
  • Have the ability to think about things that happen to them
  • Still tend to be egnocentric

What is cognitive development?:

  • A child's ability to learn and solve problems
  • A 2 month old learning to explore the environment with their hands
  • A 5 year old learning how to solve mathematical problems

Stages of cognitive development:

  • Abstract logical thinking: Abilty to solve problems using the imagination without having to use practicle skills. Form of advanced thinking
  • Egocentric thinking: Not being able to see a situation from another persons point of view
  • Concrete logical thinking: Ability to solve problems, providing they can see or physically handle the issues involved
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Jean Piaget

  • Four stages of cognitive development
  • Each stage is marked by shifts in how a child understands the world.
  • Believed children are like little scientists and that they actively try to explore and make sense of the world
  • Ages are only averages - Children may go through the stages at different speeds but in the same order
  • Suggested that there is a further post formal operational stage of thinking where adults become more skilled in wisdom allowing for informed judgement on important matters

Four stages:

  • Sensorimotor (0-2 years) - Explores the world through direct sensory and motor contact. Object permanence. Seperation anxiety develops during this stage
  • Preoperational (2-6 years) - Uses symbols to represent objects. Doesn't reason logically. Has the ability to pretend. Egocentric
  • Concrete operational (7-12 years) - Think logically about concrete objects. Add and subtract. Also undertstand conservation
  • Formal operational (12 years-adult) - Reason abstractly and think in hypothetical terms
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Piagets stages of cognitive developemnt - sensorim

  • Birth - 2 years
  • Only knows the world via its immediate senses
  • Invent ways to problem solve
  • Lacks internal mental schemata (concepts) and is unable to distinguish between itself and the environment (egocentrism)
  • Piaget - No way of rembering and thinking about the world until they are 18 months old
  • Lack of object permanence - The understanding that objects still exists when they can't be seen
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Piaget's cognitive development - Pre -opertaional

  • 2 - 7 years
  • Influenced by apperances of things
  • Only focus on one aspect of an object at a time
  • Struggle with logic and taking the opint of view of others 
  • Fail to be ablt to carry out logical operations
  • Lack of conservation
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Piaget's cognitive development - Concrete operatio

  • 7 - 11years
  • Less egocentric
  • Tend to struggle with abstract and hypothetical concepts
  • Uses practicle resources to help them understand the world such as being able to use counters for mathematics
  • Can now classify, categorise and use logic to understand things they see
  • Begin to understand that their thoughts are unique to them
  • The physical prescence of the objects being manipulated is needed (E.g. counting beads)
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Piaget's cognitive development stages - Formal ope

  • 12 years - adult
  • Capability for abstract thought, rational thought and problem solving
  • Ideas are now reasoned
  • Can think about hypothetical problems such as planned bus journeys
  • Consequences are now considered and are planned in advance
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Schemas

  • A schema is a category of knowledge as well as a process of acquiring new skills

Schema stages:

  • Stage 1: Assimilation - process of taking in new information into our already existing schemas
  • Stage 2: Equilibrium - Everything seems to fit that theory
  • Stage 3: Disequilibrium - New information disturbs a child's original schema causing imbalance and confusion
  • Stage 4: Accommodation - Modify existing schemas as a result of new information or new experinces. New schemas may also be developed during this stage

Example:

  • Stage 1: Assimilation - This is apuppy
  • Stage 2: Equilibrium - This fits my idea of what a puppy is
  • Stage 3: Disequilibrium - This is cute and furry but it doesn't bark
  • Stage 4: Accommadation - Mummy told me that this is a kitten. These are all kittens

 

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Criticisms of Piaget

  • Focused on only a few children
  • Underestimate the cognitive ability of a child - stereotyping
  • Some children develop further with support than others 
  • Additional research suggests that children take lomger than 11 years to become skilled at abstract logical thinking
  • Cognitive development might not be part of a maturation process, it is dependent on environment and the quality of their formal and informal education
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Noam Chomsky

  • Language Acquistion Device (LAD)
  • Idea that children are born with the ability to use language accurately and therefore children don't learn leanguage through imitation alone

Evidence to support Chomsky:

  • Never make grammatical errors such as getting their subjects, verbs and objects in the wrong order
  • If an adult deliberatly said a grammatically incorrect sentence, the child would notice
  • Mistakes such as "I drawed" instead of "I drew" show they are not learning through imitation alone

Critisicms:

  • Hard to prove as isolating a person is unethical
  • Lack of scientific studys to support his theory
  • Did not look at children with arrested or delayed language development and factor these into the research study
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