3 Main Explanations of institutional aggression: A
IMPORTATION MODEL: -
- Irwin and Cressey (1962) - agression occurs in institutions - prisons/military - bc ppl in them have spec. characteristics that make them aggressive - THEY AREN'T "BLANK SLATES"
- these are IMPORTED - prisoners bring own soc. histories and traits w/ them
- influences adapt. to prison env.- DISPOSITIONAL EXPLANATION (- explain)
DEPRIVATION MODEL: -
- Paterline + Peterson (1999) - pris/patnt agg. is due to oppressive/stressful cond in institution
- mainly crowding (incr. fear/frustration) and staff experience (less exp. - > to be victims)
- frustration-aggressuon hypoth = frustration -> to agg. - SITUATIONAL EXPL
- moral inhibit. about violence reduced by dehumanisation of target group through derogatory naming eg 'tutsi cockroaches' - Hutu controlled hate-radio station +'Judenshwiene' propaganda - they seem worthless results in agg.
- explains agg towards eg gypsies in UK due to media portrayals
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AO2 - explanations of institutional Aggression
- + fits people's intuition about agg.- i.e. agg. happens in prison bc agg ppl go to prison
- + Harer+ Steffensmeier (2006) - data from 58 US prisons - black inmates > white for agg beh but white>black drug/alch misconduct - mirrors wider US society
- + DeLisi et al (2004) - prison records for 831 inmates - agg beh. mainly caused by ppl who are agg. outside prison - beh. before prison = good predictor for beh. in prison.
- + both show indiv. diffs - gd support - Allendar + Marcell gang members disproportionately engage in acts of prison agg. - agg. before prison +++
- - evidence limited to prisons - not real life -- eco val
- + McCorkle et al (1995) - over-crowding, lack of privacy + meaningful activity all sig. incr. peer agg. boredom+frust. -> agg
- - doesn't look at violence towards staff
- - Jaing + Fisher-Giorlando (2002) - 432 prison records - most restrictive regime prisons = most violence towards staff - also showed IMP MOD = best predictor of p on p agg.
- - *also supported by Poole and Regoli
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AO2 - explanations of institutional Aggression con
- +Milgram (1974) - explored conflict betw. ps obedience to personal conscience + auth. fig.- using teacher/learner exp. - obedient ps allocated victims 25.3% of resp. but disobedient ps allocated victims 12.8% of blame
- +more agg. morelikely to blame victim - couldnt see victim - reduced
- +also shows can encourage institutional agg. w/ propagana suggesting vics "deserve it"
- -measures obedience not agg.
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AO3 - explanations of institutional Aggression
IDAs + AO3
- Deterministic - situational (i.e. dep. model) - bcome agg. regardless of personality bc of environment - no control over agg.
- Gender Bias - androcentric research - most ps are male
- unethical - dehumanisation - victims subjected high levels of trauma
- also hard to operationalise investigations into dehumanisation - therefore *** gert empirical/measuable/objective ev or quant/qual ev.
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