input, processing, output, storage, feedback

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data entered into system by:

  • keyboard to manually enter data
  • mouse to select from a list of options
  • scanning a barcode
  • using a optical mark reader
  • MICR


  • data collected by a temperature sensor being automatically entered into a central heating system
  • student grades entered into a school database
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data is malipulated to produce meaningful information. includes a number of stages: sorting, searching, calculating and graphing


  • sorting a list of customer data into alphabetical order
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where information is presented to user in a sutiable format


  • a printout of exam results from highest to lowest
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information needs to be stored for use at a later datw. it can be stored at any stage of the process, fore example:

  • after data has been input into a system, it may be stored without any changes being made to it
  • output stage- films stored as DVD's
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where the output from a system is fedback into the system in order to influence tyhe input


  • when you try and withdraw too much money from a bank account a warning on the screen will appear and advise you it isn't possible and suggesting you try a smaller amount
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