• acute, hard tissue injury 
  • partial/complete break in the bone 
  • compound fractures break through the skin


  • deformity
  • swelling
  • discolouration


  • pain
  • inability to move injured area


  • medical attention ASAP, PRICE, immobilisation, pain medication, surgery, physio
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  • hard tissue, acute 
  • Dislocation= displacement of one bone from another out of their original position. Occurs from direct/indirect force pushing joint past extreme range of motion
  • Subluxation= incomplete/partial dislocation 


  • deformity
  • swelling and discolouring 


  • may feel 'pop'
  • severe pain
  • loss of movement 


  • medical attention, immobilisation, PRICE, anti-imflammatory medication, surgery, physio
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  • soft tissue, acute 
  • contusion= area of skin/tissue where the blood vessels have been damaged
  • haematoma= internal bleeding, from minor bruises to deep tissue bleeding. Localised congealed bleeding from ruptured blood vessels 


  • swelling and discolouration 


  • pain 
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  • acute, soft tissue 
  • sprain= overstretch/tear in ligament that connects bone to bone


  • swelling/bruising 


  • pain, inability to bear weight


  • medical attention, PRICE, immobilisation, pain medication, reconstructive surgery, heat therapy, contrast therapy

Strain= overstretch/tear in muscle/tendon that connects muscle to bone. Signs= swelling/discolouration, bruising. Symptoms= pain on movement 

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  • soft tissue, acute 

Abrasion= superficial damage to the skin caused by scraping against a surface. Caused by falling/slipping or by clothing rubbing on body

Blister= seperation of layers of skin where a pocket of fluid forms, caused by friction. Preventable with correct footwear, equipment and training load 

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  • occurs after a traumua to the head 
  • disturbance to brain function 


  • post-traumatic seizure
  • loss of consciousness 
  • balance problems
  • confusion 


  • lying motionless
  • headache/dizziness
  • nausea/vomiting 
  • visual problems/light sensitvity 

6Rs- recognise, remove, refer, rest, recover, return

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Stress fracture

  • chronic, hard tissue
  • tiny crack in surface of bone 
  • repetitive stress of foot on ground causes trauma 


  • medical attention (diagnosis), PRICE, rest for 2 weeks avoid activity for 8 weeks, immobilisation, strengthening exercises 
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Shin splints/tendinosis

  • chronic, soft tissue 
  • Shin splints=  MTSS chronic shin pain due to inflammation of muscles and stress on tendon attachments on surface of tibia 
  • Tendinosis= the deteroiration of a tendon in response to chronic overuse and repetitive strain 


  • limited movement/stiffness


  • burning, stinging, aching 
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Torn cartilage treatment

  • medical attention
  • support using strapping eg. brace
  • anti-inflammatory/pain medication
  • physio
  • Hydrotherapy- maintain fitness without weightbearing
  • Arthroscopy- minimally invasive procedure to examine and repair damage within a joint. Used to reshape and resurface torn cartilage
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Exercise-induced muscle damage treatment

  • medical attention not required
  • cold therapy eg. ice pack
  • massage and stretching techniques
  • anti-inflammatory and pain medication 
  • heat/contrast therapy 
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Stop= stop game and observe injury

Ask= questions of player, how did the injury happen? etc

Look= at imjury site, check for swelling, bruising, deformity

Touch= at injury site, check for swelling, deformity, lumps and bumps or heat

Active movement= active movements from player

Passive movement= assessor moves injured limb/body part

Strength testing= ask player to stand, lift and put pressure on injured area, ask them if they can continue 

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  • treatment of soft tissue injuries 

Protect= from further injurt eg. splint 

Rest= 2-3 days, using crutches, gradual introduction of movement

Ice= ice painful area with cold compress, helping to reduce pain and swelling.

Compress= with elastic bandage to limit swelling and movement 

Elevate= above level of your heart and keep it supported 

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