Information Processing

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  • Created by: Sarah
  • Created on: 21-02-13 15:15

Input

It refers to entering the data into the system. Data can be entered by a variety of methods:

  •  A keyboard to manually type in the data
  •  A mouse to select from a list of options
  •  Scanning a barcode
  •  Using an optical mark reader

 Examples of input data could include:

  •  Data collected by a temperature sensor being automatically input into a central heating system.
  • Student grades from a piece of homework being entered into a teacher’s electronic notebook.
  • Lottery ticket numbers being ‘fed’ into an OMR which then enters them into the National Lottery system.
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Processing

It is the stage where the input data is manipulated in order to produce meaningful information. Processing can include a number of stages such as sorting, searching, calculations, graphing.

Some examples of processing could include:

  •  Searching sales data to find which products in a supermarket have sold the most.
  • Sorting a list of customer data into alphabetical order.
  • After a barcode has been scanned, retrieving the price of the item from the supermarket database and using this data to calculate the customer’s bill.
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Output

It is the stage where the information obtained via processing is presented to the user in a suitable format.

Examples of output could include:

  •  A printout of student examination results displayed in order from highest to lowest.
  • A digital display at the petrol pump showing how much fuel has been delivered and the cost of that fuel.
  • An alarm from a fire alarm system which has detected smoke in the room.
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Feedback

Feedback is where the output from a system is fed back into the system in order to influence the input.

Example: when you try to withdraw too much money from your account at an ATM a warning on the screen will advise you that it isn’t possible and will suggest that you try to withdraw a smaller amount. 

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