Six Components Of An ICT System
people - are needed to supply the data to the ICT system, and also make judgenments and decisions from the output supplied from the system.
Data - is the raw material of any ICT system to provide the information which is the output produced by the system.
Information - the results from the processing data. information is the output from an ICt System.
Software - these are the computer programs which provided the step by step instructions to get the job done.
Hardware - these are the physical components that make up the ICT system. hardware includes keyboards, mouse, scanner
Procedures - determine what needs to be done and when. it also covers the passing of data or informaiton between different people.
How Can Data Arise?
there are lots of ways data can arise.
- from automatic measuremnts of environmental quantities
- from a survey
- from the output of a managemnt information system
- from a transaction
- from the results of an experiment
Why Should Data Be Coded
- coded data takes less effort to type in
- more data can apperan on the screen
- takes up less storage space
- it is easier to to check the code is correct using validation checks.
an example of coding is insteas of using the colours: blue green and pink they are coded to Bl , Gr , and Pk
why do we encode data?
to compress data - this makes it occupy less space on a stoargae device and makes it faster to send to another computr over a network.
to enable a file produced in one software package to be read by someone who does not have that software package available on their computer
ways of encoding images
Types of encoding for sound
WAV - used with windows for storing sounds, sounds in this format are not highly compressed.
MIDI (musical instument digital interafce) - used mainly to communicate between electronic keyboards, synthersisers and computers. MIDI files are compressed and the files are quite small
MP3 - this format uses compression to reduce the file size considerably.
Shockwave audio - used for bery high quality sound with very small file size.
Quality Of Information
the quality of information is a measure of
- the accuracy of the information
- how easy the data is to understand
- the revleance for a particular use
- how up to date the information is.
when a new system is introduces most users will need to be trained to use it.
users can be taught by
- on line tutorials
- one to one help
people with special or particular needs need to use computers as do disabled people.
users with sensory impairment - the user may not be able to read the letters on the screen clearly so the system can use a font that is easy to read and make sure the size of the font is large enough for the useer to read.
if a user is blind - ICT can help them by the use of a talking computer where the words are spoken when typed in by the user. blind users can also use specila keyboards ( braille keyboards) and use braille printer to produce an output with raised dots.
physical disabilty - this usaly affects th users mobility. for exapmle they may not be ablt to use their arms or hands. or be able to walk. people who are unable to write because to their disabilty can use voice activated systems to imput data into the computer.
Environment of use
ict systems may be used
- at home
- on the move (trains, planes)
- at work
the requiremnts of any ICT system must take this into account. so systems may need to have less cluttered screen designs for smaller devices .
Task to be undertaken
the task to be undertaken will determin the user requirments. eg if alot of text needs to inputted automatic data entry methods coul be used. such as MICR, OCR, OMR.
the user requirement for a website could be
- easy to navigate
- regular updates
- use of correct font
- fast load times
a system designed for young people cannot be used by elderly people other wise the system wil be badly desinged so system need to be designed carefully and age needs to be taken into cosideration.
Making systems easier to use
- offer different languages
- offer speech regonition for blind people
- option to make text bigger/smaller
- allow user to change the colour of the backgorund
- provide an help option
A graphival user interface is the most popular human/ computer interface used by sofware manufactures for system and and application software.
with GUI the mouse is used as the main input device.
W - windows
I - icons
M - menus
users should not be left to figure out new ICT systems by themselves. it is much more productive to train them properly on new systems that they have to use
it can be done by
- on line tutorials
- interactive multimedia
- facr to face teaching
- peper based instruction guides
- induvliual tuition one- to -one
help desk are usally manned with someone from the ICT department.their purpose is to give epert advice to users regarding any software and hardware problem they may have.
there are many different roles in ICT and many of the roles tend to overlap in small organisations. the main roles held by ict professionals are:
- bussiness analyst
- software developer/ programmer
- web designer
- IT trainer
- help desk operater
Bussiness Analyst/ System Analyst
- interveiw business users to determine their requriments for the system
- apply the techniques of the system analysis to business problems
- be knowledgeable about technical problems
- work with developers
- work within a budget to produce the best system to solve a business problem
- knowledge of formal techniques
- knowledge of application of hardaware and software
- a good understanding of both business and ICT - so they understand the bussiness problem
- projet management skills - to coordinate activities to everyone
- communication skills - talk to users about what they want from a system
- written skills - produce clear reprorts
- ability to work in teams - to breif to staff
- problem solving skills - logical about solving the problem
- attention to detail
Software Developer/ Programmer
- writing new programs to solve business probelms
- altering existing programming code to get the program to work differently
- debugging and testing programs to remove error
- producing program documentation
- programming skills - need to be able to program and write code
- testing skills - need to be able to test programs
- abilty to work in teams - need to work with other programmers
- attention to detail - small errors can cause programs to crash
- ability to work under pressure - programs have deadline. so work needs to be on time.
Web Designer/ Administrator
- creating websites
- using prgramming skills and graphic desing skills
- making changes to existing websites
- ensure that the website works
- proficiency in web design packages - need to be able to create websites and webpages using web desing packages
- design skills - need to understand elements of design to produce attractive web pages
- understanding of networks -
- knowledge of phycology - understand how users interact with websits
- creative skills
- commuicationg skills
- listening skills
Help Desk Operator
- helping users with their ICT problems
- answering users problems by telephone
- good knowledge of sofrware/ systems being used.
- networking skills so that network problems can be resolved
- hardware skills - need to be able to detect hardware problems
- listening skills - listen to users problems
- communication skills - to explain clearly to users what thet need to do
- approachable - so that users do not feel stupid when they ask for help
- desinging courses to help users
- delivering courses to users on software packages
- keeping up to date with the latest developments in ICT
- skills in the software being used
- trouble shooting skills - to sort out problems
- bussiness skills -
- teaching skills
- technical knowledge
- communication skills
- willingness to keep skills up to date
Technician/ network administrator
- installing hardware and software
- maintaining all equipment
- setting up user id and passwords
- good technical knowledge
- problem solving skills
Working in ICT teams
- the project manager can assign task to the team member with the most approprate experience and skills to carry them out
- team members can bounce of ideas
- the project can be completd in a good time frame
- teams can motivate each other
- some one can take over work if a person leave
- harder to manage
- team members may fall out
- lots of meeting are needed
- team members are dependent on each other
Leading an ICT team
team leaders are usally chosen for a particular project, as they will need speiclist knowledge and skills in the area of the business which the project covers.
team leaders need to:
- leadership skills - ensure all team members have faith in them
- technical skills -
- management skills - able to assign task to team members who are the most capable of carrying them out
- skills in project management -
- motivational skills - motivate team members to get the best work
- presentation skills - to present proposals to ict staff
Skills of team members
- problem solving skills
- strong communicaiton skills
- abiloty to work in teams
- to be able to reach deadlines.