Influance of Agent of Socialisation on your Gender Identity

Family, media, education, workplace, peer group

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The Family

Stathem- we learn out gender identity by the age of 5 (so we learn our gender identity by out parents)

Oakley- Children learn their gender identities through:

  • Canalisation (though toys and colours, dressing a girl in pink and a boy in blue, giving a girl a baby doll and giving a boy a car or action man. It's fround upon if a boy plays with a doll or wears pink. They are told at a young age what is acceptable for their sex)
  • Minipulisation (through language, if a boy falls down he's told to be a big boy and not to cry, while a girl is allowed to cry. Boys are taught at a young age to be unemotional which is a characteristic of hegemonic masculinity)

Frosh- Boys saw mum as emotional and their dad as emotionally detached (So they know what is expected of them)

Nancy Churdrow- Women have a stronger bond with their daughters then they do their sons, their daughters gender idenitiy is more secure as they see themselves as like their mother. While the sons idenity is less secure, they don't have a role model and when they grow up they reject all forms of feminine behaviour

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The Media

McRobbie- magazines socialise females into thinkign they need to find a man

Gauntlett- the media show stereotypes of blonde and thin women and tell us how to behave

Gill and Herdiecherhoff- chicklit promotes a women's body as a source of her identity, women are supposed to be financially indipendent and sexual

Mort- Pressure on men to become metrosexual,more estign dissorders and depression

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Becker- The teachers ideal pupil is a white middle class girl

Skelton- the workign class start school with preconseptions of how to behave, the behaviour was punished by teachers which reinforced their masculine status

Frosh et al- boys who excelled in school were seen as feminine

Sharp and Stanworth- boys given more attention in the classroom

Parsons- Gendered subjects. Girls are pushed to so expressive subjects such as drama while boys are pushed to do instrimental subjects which are academic subjects such as maths and business

Education has become more feminine with the introduction of coursework. Girls favour coursework as they can get it perfect while boys tend to prefer exams so they can get it out of the way

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William- US marine who struggled were called girls

Mac an Ghail- crisis of masculinity

Pay gap between men and women is 17.5%

Workplace has become more feminised

Glass ceiling, women can see higher places but cannot get there due to patriarchy

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Peer Group

Sharp- workign class girls change in priorities from having a family to having a career 

McDonald and Marsh- peer group had most influance on identity than perents

Lees- gender expectations around sexual behaviour, girl expected to be into romance and boys not into romance

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Woodhead- veil worn by Musilim women is a sign of passivness

Bulter- Young Asian girls rebelled against tradition subordianate roles

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