Infertility, Miscarriage and Endometriosis

includes causes of infetility, treatments, miscarriage, endometriosis and possible signs of pregnancy...

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Possible Indications of Early Pregnancy

  • feeling exhausted, dizzy or faint
  • enlarged tender breasts with more obvious blue vains
  • ******* and oreola go dark pink or brown
  • missed period
  • constipation
  • increased vaginal discharge
  • odd metallic taste in mouth
  • sudden dislike to previous liked food/drink- eg, coffee
  • more frequent need to urinate
  • sickness or nausea, usually in morning but can occur any time

most common way to establish if pregnantis to use home pregnancy kit. Can be bought in chemists or supermarkets.

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Infertility is the inability to concieve children. Can affect both male and female.

Common Causes:

  • Blocked Fallopian Tubes- prevents sperm reaching egg
  • Low Sperm Count- can be at cause of male having mumps after 12. 20,000,000 sperm needed for and ova (only one fertilises)
  • Thick Cervical Mucus- prevents sperm reaching fallopian tubes
  • Cancer Treatment- kills cells and can leave men/women infertile
  • Ovulation- means no eggs to be fertilised. can be short term or serious.
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Infertility Treatment

IVF (In Vitro Fertilisation):

  • somtmes called 'test-tube baby'
  • takes place in laboratory
  • women given hormone treatment to stimulate egg production and the monitored closely so eggs can be removed by operation
  • at 8-cell-division stage 3 are selected and placed back into uterus
  • If replaced in fallopian tube it is called, GIFT (Gamete Intra-fallopian Transfer)

Donor Insemination:

  • sperm from anonymous donor
  • it is used for either IVF or GIFT

Artifical Insemination by husband:

  • places sperm directly into uterus to avoid hostile cervical mucus
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Infertility Treatments...


  • another woman offers to incubate baby in her uterus and hand it over at birth
  • husbands sperm can be used to fertilise surrogate's egg using artifical insemination

Egg Donation:

  • egg is donated and used in IVF
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baby is expelled from uterus before it is viable (classed viable at 24 weeks). Baby born dead after 24 weeks- stillbirth. most miscarriages occur around 12-14 weeks.

Possible Problems:

  • Threatened abortion: bleeding from vagina but foetus is not expelled. may result in inevitable abortion or pregnancy may continue normally.
  • Inevitable abortion: foetus is expelled naturally by body through vagina
  • Missed abortion: foetus dies in utero but is not spontaneously expelled. must be removed with medical assistance.

Signs/ Symptons:

  • vaginal bleeding- heavy continious bleeding or blood spots with severe abdominal pain.
  • clear/pink fluid from vagina (likely to be amniotic fluid from ruptured amniotic sac)
  • cramp like period pains
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Causes of Miscarriage

  • insufficient hormone levels, especially progesterone
  • Auto-immune disease in mother
  • Cervical incompetence
  • Fibroids (small growths in uterus)
  • Foetal abnormalties
  • exposure to toxins- eg, radiation
  • Severe maternal infection
  • a malformed uterus
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  • Fairly common condition
  • cells that usually line uterus are found else where in body.
  • usually in the fallopian tubes, ovaries, bladder, bowl, intestines, vagina and rectum
  • cells behave the same way cells that line the uterus do.
  • when pregnancy does not happen lining breaks down and bleeds (period)
  • Endometrial tissue does not leave body but is trapped, leading to pain, swelling and bleeding where ever tissue is.
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