Inductive and Deductive Arguments

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  • Created by: Amy
  • Created on: 11-05-12 12:06

Deductive Arguments

These are denominated from reason, which is a rationalist approach. It is a conclusion which is supported by a set of factual statements. For example, syllogisms:

A dog is a mammal.

All mammals are warm-blooded.

Therefore a dog is warm-blooded.

HOWEVER

The conclusions can be false; one of the premises can be false. Moreover, the structure of the wording may be incorrect, leaving the argument to be invalid.

Untrue statement: Nuns are women, Only women can have babies, Only Nuns can have babies

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Inductive Arguments

… follow a similar pattern to deductive arguments, except that although the premises support the conclusion, they do not guarantee it. Although they can usually be relied upon, there is a degree of assumption and uncertainty, for example, all ravens that have ever been observed have been black, therefore the next raven I see will be black. Moreover, if a plant was kept in proper sunlight and watered, it will grow. 

But, ravens can albino.

Chickens in a farm think that the farmer is a nice man, because he feeds them well everyday. Then, they are taken to the slaughterhouse.

Inference = Promote the idea that it is going to happen; to reach an opinion to what someone has said.

Assumption = Accepting something without proof

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