Individual differences psychology

hraba& grant, gould, rosenhan, thigpen and cleckly

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Hraba and Grant

outline the research by clark and clark in 1939...

black children preferred white dolls and rejected black dolls when asked

which were nice

which looked bad

which they would like to play with

which were a nice colour

thought black was not beautiful and they would rather be white

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hraba and grant

outline the difference between the C&C sample and the H&G sample of p's...

H&G used both black and white children whereas C&C only used black children

what was the DV?

racial preference

racial self identification

racial knowledge

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hraba and grant

what were the 2 IV's?

black and white children(race)

C&C and H&G results were compared (time- 39/69)

outline the findings in relation to one of the DV's...

in 1939 the black children preferred the white doll however in 1969 the black children preferred the black doll

racial preference

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hraba and grant

why did the results change over time?

because of civil rights action and black role models such as malcom X and MLK

what does the study show in relation to ethnocentrism?

shows that black children became ethnocentric over time due to black pride

why is this study not real to life?

as dolls were used and leading questions were asked

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hraba and grant

outline 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of interviews...


high control (structured interview),

best person to get information from asking the individual themselves


demand characteristics- leading questions

time consuming

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hraba and grant

this is a quasi experiment- explain why?
as the IV naturally occured , black and white children

outline what controls were used in this study...
same doll

same questions asked

same interviewers

why are controls used in psychological research?
2 gain reliable results

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what is meant by eugenics?
selective breeding of the most intelligent

what is a psychometric test?
measures of

outline yerkes' aim...
to show IQ test can test intelligence

to demonstrate that intellectual ability was inherited and some cultures should not continue to breed

the mind e.g IQ test

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outline yerkes' sample...
1.75 million army recruits during the 1st world war

what 3 IQ tests were used by yerkes'?
army alpha- written exam for literate recruits

army beta- a pictorial exam for illiterate for those who failed army alpha

individual exam - for those who failed the beta

outline a practical problem with the testing...
the test didn't measure innate intelligence,as questions were based on american general knowledge that recent immigrants would be unlikely to know e.g
the number of kaffir's legs is- 2,4,6 or 8

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outline one ethical problem with testing...
were decieved or properly debriefed

no consent was give or right to withdraw

protection- p's labelled as morons

what were the 3 facts that yerkes' discovered from his research?americans are morons (mental age 13)

recent eastern europeans immgrants even lower

black americans the lowest

why did gould think that IQ tests lack validity?
as it's cultural based

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what is schizophrenia?

mental disorder

symptoms- delusions, hallucinations, incoherent word association, innapropraite emotions or lack of emotions

what was the aim of exp1?

if normal people attempt to be admitted to a psychiatric hospitals, will they be detected as sane, and if so how?

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what symptoms did the pseudopatients report on admission to psychiatric hospital?
said they heard unclear, unfamiliar voices of the same gender that said single words-




describe the sample in this study...
12 hospitals varying in age, resources, staff patients ratio degree of research conducted etc

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describe the pseudo patients (experimenters in this study...
8 sane people 3 women 5 men

using fake names and occupations

from variety of occupational backgrounds

an additional study was carried out during exp1 when pseudopatients asked when they would be allowed to leave-what were the responses?
9/10 nurses ignored patients and walked away

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what was the aim of exp2?

in a follow up study, the hospital was told that during the next 3 mnths one or more pseudopatients would attempt to be admitted into hospital

what were the findings of exp2 ?

41/193 real patients were judged to be p-patients

19/193 were judged by a psychiatrist and a member of staff to be p-patients

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what are type 1 and 2 errors?

type1- this is when one plays safe causing a doctor to diagnose healthy people as sick more often than sick as healthy. also called a false positive

type2- is the other way round diagnosing sick as healthy also known as false negative

what is meant by the stickiness of psychodiagnostic labels?
leads to delay in patients overcoming their illness

the study uses participant observation, outline 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of this method...
strengths- high EV , shows cause and effect

weaknesses- high demand characteristics, low control

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thigpen and cleckley

what is meant by Multiple personality disorder?

dissoactive disorders, more than 1 personality exists in the same person, each personality intergrated and stable

describe the participant in this study 'Eve'...

25 year old married woman

outline Eve's initial symptoms...

headaches and blackouts

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thigpen and cleckley

what psychometric methods were used to study Eve?
IQ tests and memory test

outline one problem of such method...
although it may be reliable, there is no garuntee it is valid, prone demand characteristics

what were the results of these test?
eve white- got 110 in IQ test, excellent in memory test

eve black- got 104 in IQ test, poor in memory test

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thigpen and cleckley

what projective methods were used to study eve?

rosarch ink blot tests and hypnosis

outline one problem of such methods...

not reliable

what were the results of projective tests?

eve white- showed repression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive traits and an ability to deal with her hostility

eve black- showed regression and hysterical tendencies, to be far healthier than eve white

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thigpen and cleckley

2 strengths and weaknesses of case studies method referring to study...

strengths- detail and in depth 100 hrs of interview, quantative and qualitive (IQ results)

weaknesses- not generalisable to other people with MPD, individual differences

what is quantative dats-how was it collected in this study?

numerical collected through IQ tests

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thigpen and cleckley

what is quantative dats-how was it collected in this study?

numerical collected through IQ tests

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