Individual Differences

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  • Created by: Sona
  • Created on: 04-05-15 14:46

Definitions of Abnormality

DEVIATION FROM SOCIAL NORMS

- Anti-Social, undesireable - e.g. rudeness, unpoliteness 

:( cultural relativism, context of behaviour 

FAILURE TO FUNCTION ADEQUATELY

- operate with certain acceptable limits = normal, interfer with daily functioning = abnormal e.g. avoid eating in public 

:( adaptation, cultural relativism

DEVIATION FROM MENTAL HEALTH

- JAHODA - manage stress effectively, strong sense of identity, actualisation of one's full potential 

- If one doesn't have all characteristics = abnormal

:( not everyone has all atributes, cultural relativism 

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Psychodynamic Approach to Psychopathology

SIGMUND FREUD - distress caused by conflict between id (irrational), ego (rational) and superego (rational-balance) - reduces anxiety by conflict - between id and ego

DEVELOPMENT 

- fixation = child deprived from stages

- oral stage, anal stage (fixation = OCD), phallic stage (fixation = sz) & latency period

DEFENCE MECHANISMS

- repression - unpleasant thoughts becomes unconcsious

- projection - blaming others 

- rejection - behaving like a child  = overused - abnormality

:) widely accepted - child abuse, first to suggest adult behaviour influenced by childhood (Ainsworth)

:( abstract concept - unfalsifiable - difficult to prove & unconscious - sexist

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Cognitive Approach to Psychopathology

MALADAPTIVE - thoiughts = abnormality - puts the individual in full control over their abnormality

BECK - negative views about themselves, the world and the future = abnormality

ELLIS' ABC MODEL

A) action - something happens = belief

B) belief - could act in either adaptive or maladaptive

C) consequence - maladaptive 

SCHEMATA

- developed from early experiences, traumatic (negative schemata & automatic thoughts = misplaced unconscious thoughts = abnormaility)

:) effective - good outcomes - ENGELS concluded REBT - effective for OCD, phobias

:) appropriateness - not only useful for clinical populations but non-clinical

:( irrational = environmental e.g. abusive partners - not suitable for all 

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Biological Approach to Psychopathology

PHYSICAL FACTORS

- psychopathology similar to disease (brain damage/dysfunction) - symptoms are similar to disease - can be diagnosed (DSM IV) - :) brain scanning - identified aspects psychopathology - loss of tissue in some areas of the brain

GENES INHERITANCE

- genes inheritance = development of mental illness - :) KENDLER - twin family studies - saw that relatives of sz were 18x more likely to develop sz

GENES = ABNORMAL BIOCHEMISTRY/NERUOANATOMY

- chemical imbalances = mental illnesses = sz - high dopamine - :( environmental factors

VIRAL INFECTIONS

- physical illness = mental illness - :) BAR ET AL found high levels of sz - mothers flu virus - pregnant possible link - :) dominant approach, drugs = effective treatment, research = genetic link - bipolar disorders - :( heavily reductionist - behaviour, drug treament - not effective for phobias

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Biological Ways To Treat Psychopathology

ECT

1) patient given muscle relaxant & oxygen before treatment 

2) 2 small currentls passed through brain (1/2 sec) 

3) causes seizure

4) changes the way neutrotransmitters work

:) saves lives - severe depression - benefits outweigh risks - CORNER - 60%-70% improve after treatment

:( SACKHEIM - 84% relapse = not effective long-term - Sham ECT & ECT - ECT quicker recovery than Sham - Sham patientes recovered though - possible side effects - CVD, headaches - DOTT REPORT - 30% suffered permanent fear & anxiety

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Biological Ways To Treat Psychopathology

ANTI PSYCHOTIC DRUGS - low levels of dopamine activity in the brain = low symptoms

ANTI DEPRESSANTS (SSRIs) - low levels of serotonin absorbed = high serotonin available

ANTI-ANXIETY DRUGS (Bz&Beta-Blocks) - calm efect on nervous system

:) easy use - less than psychoanalysis - effective - WHO = relapse rates high when sz had placebos (25%) those who had anti-psychotics (2-3%) when combined with family intervention

:( drug treatment not effective on its own - only tackles symptoms, not causes - KIRSCH - placebos did as well as the real drugs

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Psychological Ways To Treat Psychopathology

PSYCHOANALYSIS

- Free Association - talks about whatever's on their mind

- Dream Analysis - therapists monitor patient's dreams (unconsciousness)

- patient associates certain things - abnormality - repeats - therapists knows more about patient

:) BERGIN analysed data from 10,000 patients - 80% benefitted compared to 65% of ECT

:) TSCHUSCHKE - longest study - more than 450 patients sampled - longer psychoanalysis = better outcomes 

:( appropriateness - failed to appreciate individual differences

:( based on Freud's theorry - if psychoanalysis if flawed - so it his theory

:( repressive memories = false memories

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Psychological Ways To Treat Psychopathology

SYSTEMATIC DESENSITISATION

- patient taught to relax in stressful situatons

- make a desensitasation hierachy (anxiety/phobias)

- goes through hierachy and overcomes them

:) approppriateness - anxiety related disorders

:) quick - less effort - successful

:) effectiveness - successfully worked on 75% phobias

:) useful for severe learning difficulties

:( Individual differences - can sometimes supress fear

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Behavioral Approach To Psychopathology

Stresses the importance of learning & experience in causing psychological disorders.

CLASSICAL CONDITION - learn through association - related to developing disorders (LITTLE ALBERT)

OPERANT CONDITION - learn through reinforcement - if abnormal behaviour rewarded - could lead to psychological disorders

SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY - behaviour is learned through observation of others - if they are rewarded/punished for their behaviour then one may/may not imitate behaviour (vicarious reinforcement) e.g. anxiety - if parents have it, then children are likely to develop it & eating disorders

:) can provide good exp of some disorders (phobias) using classical conditioning and eating disorders with SLT - scientific approach - thus easy testable - treatments using the behavioural approach such as Aversion therapy have been successful

:( behaviour exp limited in explaining how psychological disorders start

:( mainly treat the symptoms - not the cause of disorders

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