Individual Differences

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There is a number of ways age can affect particaption in sport. 

Peak age = 18-28

Effects of ageing (training can improve performance&reduce affect but can't stop decline.)

  • Strength, Cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, MHR all decrease 
  • Muscle decreases in size and muscle strength decreases 
  • Body builts up fat
  • Arteries harden and blood flow to muscles is reduced

However skill level can improve as experience is gained.

Age Divisons

  • Particuallary in contact sports - safer/ fairer 
  • Not fair for younger, less devolped performers to play more physically mature players
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There are physical differences between men and women.

Men (tend to be..)

  • Stronger
  • Faster
  • Have Greater Cardiovascular Endurance
  • More Muscle mass
  • Higher oxygen-carring capcity (better stamina)

Females (mainly oppposite of males but..)

  • Flexible

Therefore boys and girls cannot compete against each other after a certain age as it would be unfair competiton. 

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Also called Samatotypes (body's shape and composition)


  • Narrow shoulders and shoulder
  • Thin/Lean
  • Little muscle or fat
  • Suited to endurance events e.g Cross country running, dance, gymnastics


  • Wide hips and shoulders
  • High body fat
  • Suited for sports requiring strength e.g. Sumowrestling 


  • Broad shoulders and narrow hips
  • Muscluar arms and legs with little body fat
  • Suited to sports games requiring strength,speed, agaility e.g swimmers, rugby
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Environment is the area you train and live in

Weather (can affect both training and competing)

Serve weather may prevent performers participating. Snow, ice, rain can make dangerous conditions


Vital for some activities such as skiing, mountain biking and climbing. Without hill and snows you wouldn't be able to ski.

Having access to high quality facilites can benefit as gives more oppourtinity 

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