Individual Differences

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  • Created by: Kescott
  • Created on: 23-05-16 20:35


  • Physical prime reached in 20s
  • Flexibility, strength and cardiovascular endurance decrease with age
  • Skills can improve with experience
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  • High in teens but decrease with age
  • Combine with tendency to put on weight, reducing flexibility
  • E.g. in gymnastics athletes compete internationally at 12 but retired by 20
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  • Strength decreases as we get older
  • Young people not reach maximum strength until fully grown in late teens/early 20s
  • E.g. weight training not suggested for certain ages
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Oxygen Capacity

  • Reduces with age as heart becomes less efficient
  • Arteries lose elasticity, increasing blood pressure and reducing blood flow
  • HR decreases approx. 1 beat per min per year from mid 20s
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Skill Level

  • Improve with age as experience gained
  • Improve as we grow and get stronger
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  • The older you get the longer it takes to recover from injuries
  • More chance of suffering from disorders and diseases
  • Gradual build up of wear and tear on body
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Age Divisions

  • Not be safe or fair for younger less developed performers to compete against older, more physically mature performers
  • Not apply to all sports and there is some flexibility as some develop more quickly and lack of contact in some sports
  • School sport in year groups
  • Major sports competeitions around age but soe flexibility to play older competitions
  • Not common in contact sports
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Body shape, size and physique generally different in men and women

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Oxygen Carrying Capacity

  • Women have lower oxygen carrying capacity than men
  • Difference of up to 43%
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Muscle Strength and Power

  • Release of testosterone means boys have longer bones and muscles
  • Women have less total muscle mass
  • Maximal strength difference of up to 40-50%
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  • Women have less muscle mass so tend to be more flexible
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Other Physical Differences

  • Girls mature faster
  • Competition between young males and females can be fair
  • From age of 11 males start to overtake in terms of height and strength
  • Sport tends to be single sex after this age
  • Females menstruate and suffer hormonal imbalance can disadvantage females during period
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Perceived Differences

  • Women have been seen as weaker sex
  • Not allowed to compete in distance races at Olympics until 1960
  • Traditional male sport = football
  • Traditional female sport = netball
  • Religion
  • historically fewer opportunities for women
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  • Born with
  • Can influence body composition and musculature but height and weight are preordained
  • Body type means you are particularly suited to specific sports
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  • Pear shaped
  • Wide hips
  • Wide shoulders
  • Tendency to gain fat
  • Short legs in relation to trunk
  • Front of scrum in rugby
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  • Wedge shaped
  • Broad-wide shoulders
  • Muscled arms and legs
  • Narrow hips
  • Minimum amount of fat
  • Sprinters and swimmers
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  • Prodominately long, slender and thin
  • Narrow shoulders and hips
  • Thin arms and legs
  • Very little body fat or muscle
  • High jump and marathon runner
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Risk and Challenge - Why take part?

  • Improve image and awareness
  • Overcome fear
  • Feeling of satisfaction and wellbeing
  • Experience success
  • Achieve a target or goal
  • Achieve something never attempted
  • Stimulation and to relieve boredom
  • Improve body composition
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Risk Assessment

  • Identify possible risks/hazards associated with an activity
  • outline precautions taken to minimise or eliminate risk
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Risk Control

  • Every effort made by participants and those in charge to ensure that the activity continues in a safe manner once risk assessment has been carried out
  • Check equipment, playing areas and participants
  • ensure rules are followed
  • Balanced and fair competition
  • Ensure organisers and officials are qualified
  • Warm-up and cool down
  • First aid equipment available
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Activity Levels - Competitive

An activity that involves some form of contest, rivalry or game


  • County or international players dedicate a lot of time
  • Physically demanding
  • Highly committed
  • Dedicate time to the activity
  • Dedicated time to physical training
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Activity Levels - Recreational

Any form of play, amusement or relaxation performed as games, sports or hobbies


  • More suited to adults with full time jobs and less time
  • Less physically demanding
  • Not as demanding (commitment)
  • At a convenient time for you
  • No special preparation or training
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Training - Available Time

  • Needed to improve and maintain levels of fitness
  • Needed to improve skills and tactics
  • Finding time can be difficult
  • Training for Olympics everyday
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Training - Available Money

  • More funds can mean improvements:
    • Easier to pay for training
    • Afford better equipment/training facilities
    • Afford specialist training
  • Certain athletes look for sponsorship
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