India Topic 4

Lahore Resolution 1940

  • Separate Muslim states 
  • Protests broke out - Raj acted quickly 
  • Hindus and Muslims prepare for conflict 
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Congress Reaction

  • Nehru immediately condemned = Congress weak 
  • Nehru - Partition would have economic difficulties for Muslims 
  • Partition would be unfair to religious minorities: Sikhs forced to split and leave 
  • Believe it is an emotionally driven suggestion 
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Bose and Axis Powers

  • 1939 - Bose left Congress and formed forward bloc party
  • Anti-British terrorist organisation
  • Escaped from jail and went to USSR, Germany and gained support for the cause  
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Cripps Mission 1942

  • Secure full India Cooperation 
  • Offered form of independence 
  • Not enough though 
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Quit India 1942

  • Shouting quit India at British 
  • Largely unsuccessful  
  • Efforts for independence 
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Simla Conference 1945

  • Viceroy Wavell travelled to London to meet Cabinet mission 
  • Executive council all Indian
  • Indian political leaders met at Simila 
  • Ended in deadlock regarding how Muslim members would be chosen 
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Why Partition?

  • March 1940 - Lahore conference Jinnah spoke of Muslim state 
  • Adopting name Pakistan (land of pure)
  • Lahore declaration and resolution did not demand separate Muslim state 
  • Suggested form of autonomy essential to protect Muslims in the north-west and Bengal.
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How was Partition Achieved?

  • Radcliffe Commission: Made up of Hindus and Muslim judges gave 6 weeks to separate India and Pakistan 
  • Mountbatten Informed Indian Princes: Constantly loyal to British and made to choose between India and Pakistan 
  • British Asserted Divide: 82.7% India 17.5% Pakistan 
  • All government agencies and organisations along with materials divided 
  • Many Indians found themselves on the wrong side of the border 
  • Muslims moved Northwest and Northeast 
  • 600,00 killed in the process 
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