Impact of War on the Home Front (Britain at War 1914-1918) (Britain 1900-1951)

  • Created by: oanderton
  • Created on: 26-08-20 12:02

Political Impact of the War

  • Immense growth in power of the state over the individual
  • Legislation introduced that greatly increased state power.
  • State interferrance in private business.
    • Some private industries put under state control.
    • Some private business freedoms interferred with by the state.
  • Daylight saving time introduced in 1916
  • Restricutions on daily life for the war effort
    • Purchase restrictions with rationing.
  • General health of the country got better because of rationing, few fatty food real
  • Emphasis self sufficiency
  • War bond people promise to pay certain amount of money that will be paid back with interest by the government - very popular
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Legislation that extended state power?

  • Introduction of DORA - unpopular
    • Authorised the government to do almost anything it thought necessary to help the war effort and protect the country.
  • Ministry of Munitions established in 1915, taking over and creating factories
    • Oversaw & co-ordinated production & distribution of munitions.
    • Created by Munitions of War Act 1915
    • Lloyd George 1915-1916
  • First use of conscriptionMilitary Service Act 1916
  • Introduction of much greater government surveillance
  • New welfare allowances
    • Widows pensions, disability allowances and separation payments paid by the state 
      • Increase in state power & responsibility over welfare
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How did the War Effect Businesses?

  • Ministry of Munitions established in 1915, taking over and creating factories.
    • Control of munitions industry in state hands.
  • Railways and mine taken over by the state
  • Opening hours in pubs introduced
    • State interferrance in private business.
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Everyday Restrictions

  • Rations introduced on sugar, meat, butter, jam and tea.
  • Restrictions on alcohol
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Benefits of War on Home Front

Increase of state control & responsibility lead to revolutionary welfare extentions:

  • Provision of munitions canteens of subsidised food.
    • 900 feeding a million by 1918
  • School meals for the poor set up in 1908.
    • Extended to needy children during the year
  • Old age pensioners could continue to work while drawing their pension
  • Nurseries subsided for working mothers
    • Although limited, they did cut childcare costs
  • 1911 National Insurance scheme extended in 1916 to families of soldiers & war workers 
    • Maternity care became available, reducing costs and improving health
  • 1915 Care of Mothers and Young Children Act
    • Led to more midwives, health care, maternity benefits and provision of milk.
    • Causing death rate for young children to fall to one of the lowest
  • Education Act 1918 
    • Proposals for improving fitness and health of children
    • By schools providing playing fields and sport facilities   
  • Rise in voluntary organisations 
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Affect of War on Living Standards

  • German submarines struck at merchant ships importing food and war supplies.
    • From Canada and the USA
  • Work force tries to carry on
  • Trade unions expanded to represent the working class
  • People start to petition for better living
  • Very first total war brought to civilians 
  • Food shortages & hunger due to fewer people working in farms
  • Widespread unemployment
  • Families had to cope without male breadwinners
    • Send children to work in farms & factories
    • 1914-1917: 600,000 children withdrawn from school for war work.
  • Towns & cities suffered German attacks in the Blitz.
  • Flu epidemic 1918 due to malnutrition
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