Immune System Defences



Phagocytes surround any pathogens in the blood and engulf them. They are attracted to pathogens and bind to them. 

The phagocytes membrane surrounds the pathogen and enzymes found inside the cell break down the pathogen in order to destroy it. As phagocytes do this to all pahtogens that they encounter, thay are called 'non-specific' 

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Lymphocytes are another type of white blood cell. They recognise pathogens called antigens. Lymphocytes detect that these are foreign not naturally occuing within your body and produce antibodies. This can take a few days, during which time you may feel ill. The antibodies cause pathogens to stick together and make it easier for phagocytes to engulf them. 

Some pathogens produce toxins which make you feel ill. Lymphocytes can also produce antitoxins to neutrilise these toxins. Both antibodies and antitoxins are highly specific to the antigen on the pathogen, therfore the luphocytes that produce them are called 'specific' 

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