idiopathic lameness

cook 2001

idiopathic conditions often occur with developmental abnormalities

in young dogs idiopathic conditions often cause forelimb lameness

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schoen 1996

trigger point therapy may be useful

limited risk of further damage or lameness

no observed side effects

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NARCH 2018

hydrotherapy caution for undiagnosed forelimb lameness due to risks caused by neck extension when swimming or uwtm at shoulder height

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harrison 1991

some animalshave been observed showing physical pain for psychological reasons so the context that the behaviour is shown should be considered

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ijichi et al 2014

no relation between injury severity and lameness score in horses- lameness may be linked to personality

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